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E.g. I can do it. He should do it. She needs to do it. We are able to do it. They have to do it. You are to do it. He needs to do it. Etc.

 

3.5.1. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of phrasal modals. Give your own examples.

General ability He canbear the hardships without complaint.
Improbability My son can't have committedthis crime.
Ban You can't pay with dollars in this country.
Achievement He is able to beat another world record.
Strong order You must give the money back.
Strong ban Children mustn'tplay with fire at home.
Caused necessity We oftenhave to work long hours.
Prior arrangement The tourists are to come here in a group.
Personal necessity Need you have all the troubles on your chest?
Possibility There may/might be a snow storm.
Instruction The grandmother shouldtake a pill a day.
Proper advice You ought to rethink your eating habits.
Willingness Iwill lend you the money you need.
Promise I shall take all the necessary measures.

 

3.5.2. Match grammar structures with their meaning (be critical with your choice)

1. I shall pass the exams with distinctions. A. General ability B. Promise C. Achievement
2. He lacks experience and can't take all the responsibility. A. General ability B. Ban C. Improbability
3. Jacky can't be in Paris now. A. Improbability B. General ability C. Ban
4. Passengers can't enter through the back door. A. Ban B. General ability C. Improbability
5. The train is to make only one stop on the way. A. Caused necessity B. Instruction C. Prior arrangement
6. You needn't have squandered your money. A. Caused necessity B. Personal necessity C. Instruction
7. You ought to be on your guard. A. Advice B. Instruction C. Obligation
8. School children do not have to wear uniform. A. Caused necessity B. Strong ban C. Obligation
9. Under no circumstances must you open this chest. A. Strong ban B. Obligation C. Instruction
10. Teachers have to make visits to their pupils' home. A. Obligation B. Personal necessity C. Caused necessity

 

3.5.3. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate choice. Explain the difference.

1. Mozart at the age of five … play the piano as an experienced adult.

2. By the age of five many children … reading more and more words.

3. The diplomat … in the Hague. We met in Geneva.

4. You … take the underground to the airport. It's the fastest.

5. The granny … done the washing up. We are using the dishwasher.

6. You … always help those in need.

7. This guy … end up in prison.

8. The child … been treated in such a way.

9. Mankind … win a victory over AIDS!

10. You … use the radioactive chemicals from this laboratory.

 

1. A/ could B/ was able to C/ is said D/ must have

2. A/ will begin B/ must C/ should begin D/ are to begin

3. A/ can't be B/ couldn't be C/ can't have been D/ shouldn't be

4. A/ can B/ must C/ ought to D/ should



5. A/shouldn't have B/needn't have C/mustn't have D/ oughtn't to have

6. A/ ought to B/ must C/ need to D/ have to

7. A/ can B/ might C/ may D/ should

8. A/ shouldn't have B/ needn't have C/oughtn't to have D/must have

9. A/ will B/ shall C/ should D/ could

10. A/ shouldn't B/ needn't C/ oughtn't to D/ mustn't

 

3.5.4. Fill the gaps in the text below with the missing language.

Experts throughout the world demand that human cloning …1… be banned. Many add that scientists attempting to clone humans …2… be outlawed across the world. These doubtful experiments are causing great public anxiety and …3… be stopped at once, many leading figures say. The agreement reached so far is that experiments on animals …4… continue while any attempts to produce human clones …5… be regarded as illegal. The politicians intend to have the media stop reporting human cloning successes. It is also important that every country …6… effective legislation to deter human cloning. One of the reasons is that cloning techniques …7… still be unsafe and scientists …8… carry out such experiments on people. Some of these specialists …9… be motivated by publicity but they …10… show more responsibility as well. Still, many countries have not banned the practice because many people …11… those experiments hoping to get a baby, to find a perfect transplant organ, or to achieve ambitions of immortality. In any case, people …12… to be reassured that new scientific knowledge is not misused with a dangerous effect. Major objections are that cloning …13… be dangerous for women, there is no evidence that human cloning …14… be successful, cloning …15… result in giving birth to invalids. In response to public demand, some parliaments …16… to ban human cloning in their countries.  

 

3.5.5. GRAMMAR-GLOSS. Read the text only once and write a free version of what you have read. Focus on modal verbs.

 

Everyone should know that 300 million people world-wide are obese, and 750 million are overweight. World public has demanded the World Health Organization reconsider plans to tackle global obesity rates. Further discussion will be needed before a final plan is approved. Some experts question the proposal that food industry should introduce cuts in salt, fat and sugar intake across the world. Many argue that promoting healthier lifestyles must be given a priority, not dieting. To all intents and purposes, obesity may be a risk factor for heart disease and other life-threatening conditions. That is why, WHO is saying that the food industry ought to make deeper cuts in sugar and fat contained in food. Another policy is that advertising healthier lifestyle is to begin soon. On thing is clear. Consumers must be cautioned against the so called "comfort food". The plan is to take consumers out of their "comfort zone". Everybody must understand that "having one's fill" on a regular basis may have dangerous consequences. Importantly, adults ought to set a good example of healthy diets and life style to children. The problem is that food industry is fearing profit losses and insists that recommendations on sugar and salt should be based on hard science. They claim that individuals need the right of choice and ought to eat a balanced diet, living a healthier lifestyle. Well, this might be true, given that people get access to reliable information on which food and lifestyle can make them healthier.

 

3.5.6. Recall, imagine and describe general abilities of home pets, their possible behaviours and dangers, as well as give recommendations for making the pets feel better. Focus on the use of modals.

 

 

 

CONDITIONALS

4.1. Zero conditional. If/when … + Verb + Verb. E.g. If they do … we do …

First conditional. If/when/unless/provided … + Verb + will/shall Verb. E.g. Provided he does … I will do …

Second conditional. If … + Verb(ed) + would Verb. E.g. If she did … he would do …

Third conditional. If … + had Verb3 … + would have Verb3. If they had done … we would have done …

Mixed conditional. If … + had Verb3 … + would Verb . E.g. If we had done … they would do …

Phrase conditionals. I wish …+Verb(ed). E.g. He wishes you did not do/had not done …

4.1.1a. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of Zero conditional. Give your own examples.

MEANING EXAMPLE
1 Regular observations When the Sun sets,it getsdark at once.
2 Dependence of events If one doesnotworkwell,one getsfired.
3 Common knowledge If youexerciseregularly, you feelbetter.
4 Command or instruction If you see him, tellhim to phone me
5 General truth If there's a will, there'sa way.

4.1.1b. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of First conditional. Give your own examples.

1. Logical sequence You willsucceed if youdo your best.
2. Dependence on situation Providing there is snow, we will ski. If you arelucky, you willsee real Nessie.
3. Warning If you lose, you willbe disqualified. Unless youtryharder, you will fail. Listen to me lestyou growignorant.

 

4.1.1c. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of Second conditional. Give your own examples.

1. Imagined present If I had more ti If I were a millionaire, I would help you.
2. Imagined future If I mether again, I would not beshy.
3. Formal request I would begrateful ifyouwouldvisit me.
4. Advice If I were you, I wouldapologise.
5. Relief If you weren'ta guest, they wouldbe offended.

 

4.1.1d. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of Third conditional. Give your own examples.

1. Unreal past If the doctor had been more attentive, she would have been saved.
2. Belated complaint If he had not been so reckless, he would not have got into a scrape. What would you have done if you had locked yourself out?
3. Cause and consequence in the past If it had not been for a fever, I would have gone out to a pub.
4. Cause and consequence in the past linked to the present If we had left earlier, we would probably have arrived by now.
5. Supposition about the past Sandra would have emailed me suppose she had wanted to stay in touch.

 

4.1.1e. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of Mixed conditional. Give your own examples.

1 Dependence of present on past If you hadn’t warned me then, I would make a silly mistake today.
2 Dependence of past on present If I knew about your birthday, I would have baked a cake.

 

4.1.1f. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of phrase conditionals. Give your own examples.

1 Wish to change present If only I were ableto do better in maths.
2 Regret about present I wishI knewthe answer. If only I couldsee you more often.
3 Complaint I wishyou wouldn’t beso forgetful.
4 Regret about past I wishyouhadbecome a doctor. If only Jack hadseen the danger.
5 Preference for present I would rather you did not swear.
6 Preference for past I'd rather Lily had stoppedat my house.
7 Suggestion for present We had better sit down and talk.

 

4.1.2. Match grammar structures with their meaning (be critical with your choice)

1. If the birds are flying low, the rain is very likely to fall soon. A/ Dependence of events B/ Regular observations C/ General truth.
2. If one is constantly under stress, the blood pressure will rise. A/ Logical sequence B/ Dependence on situation C/ Warning
3. If you make mistakes, your paper will be returned. A/ Warning B/ Dependence on situation C/ Logical sequence
4. If Jack received a written invitation, he would perhaps make it to the party. A/ Imagined past B/ Imagined present C/ Imagined future
5. We would very much appreciate it if you sent us a complete review. A/ Advice B/ Formal request C/ Relief
6. If I were in Paris, I would go to see the Eiffel Tower. A/ Imagined present B/ Imagined future C/ Dependence on situation
7. If he weren't a child he would be prosecuted in the court of law. A/ Advice B/ Imagined present C/ Relief
8/ If Mark had wanted to be an achiever, he would not have spoiled the game. A/ Advice B/ Belated complaint C/ Cause and consequence
9. Suppose she had not intended to get into trouble, she would have thought twice before opening her mouth. A/ Supposition about past B/ Belated complaint C/ Unreal past
10. If you had not had a big press, you would be out of the public eye. A/ Dependence on past B/ Belated complaint C/ Cause and consequence
11. I wish my Spanish improved. A/ Wish to change present B/ Regret about present C/ Complaint
12. She would rather we had not bought this dog at all. A/ Preference for present B/ Preference for past C/ Regret about past

 

4.1.3. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate choice. Explain the difference.

1. If people smoke, they … so many risks!

2. Everybody knows that if you go along this road it … much longer.

3. … you come late, we will leave you a note on the door.

4. I will give you a ring … you forget to bring me the diskette.

5. If you weren't young, you … able to rent a car.

6. You would oblige me if you … to meet my colleague.

7. If you … stop smoking, you … be sorry later.

8. Bill would not have passed the exam, if he … revised thoroughly.

9. We … standing here had it not been for our saviour.

10. I … Mr. Railing would not be so stubborn.

 

1. A/ run B/ will run C/ are running D/ were run

2. A/ will take B/ is taking C/ takes D/ will be taking

3. A/ Unless B/ Until C/ Provided D/ If

4. A/ until B/ lest C/ if D/ unless

5. A/ will be B/ would have been C/ were not D/ were

6. A/ agree B/ will agree C/ would agree/agreed D/ agreed

7. A/ don't…will B/ didn't…will C/ didn't…would D/ don't …would

8. A/ had not B/ did not C/ were not D/ was not

9. A/ would be B/ would not be C/ wouldn't have been D/ were not

10. A/ if only B/ had better C/ have better D/ would rather

 

4.1.4. Fill the gaps in the text below with the missing language.

The health of millions …1… damaged if world temperatures …2… to rise as a result of climate change. Increasing temperatures …3… aid the spread of water-borne diseases, and those carried by insects. Even a rise of a few degrees …4… expose hundreds of millions more people to the threat of malaria, say experts. In addition, changes to rainfall patterns, …5… damage agriculture, plunging millions into malnutrition. Some scientists have predicted that if global temperatures …6… by a few degrees by 2030 as a result of the "greenhouse effect", the consequences …7… be damaging. Measures must be taken to stop this rise in temperatures …8… malaria "season" in many countries extends making the disease endemic. If malarial mosquitoes …9… to live in greater numbers in countries where the disease is not a problem at present - such as some European nations - malaria …10… the continent. …11… the measures not been taken already in hotter and wetter weather conditions, the population there …12… suffer even more. If further steps …13… not taken, countries most likely to be affected in the event of further climate change …14… be India, Bangladesh, and Vietnam. However, if the warming …15…, a few countries - such as China - …16… actually benefit from climate changes in harvesting rice crops. Generally speaking, we can only wish the effects of the predicted shift in climate patterns …17… not worsen air pollution, not to mention "extreme weather" episodes such as heatwaves, floods, storms and droughts.  

 

4.1.5. GRAMMAR-GLOSS. Read the text only once and write a free version of what you have read. Focus on the use of conditionals.

 

The sceptics had better hold their breath lest they be shocked. There is a parrot who knows as many words as a human child. I wish parents and teachers knew that he is even making similar errors, e.g. "flied" for "flew". If the parrot did not "know" Past Simple Tense, he would not use the "ed" ending. The scientists would be brought up short if they were told that a parrot knew 950 words. They would be further stunned should they learn that the bird had a sense of humour and was able to invent words in novel situations. Yet, this African grey is a reality. A reporter recently told readers that he would have never believed the story, should he not have seen the bird live. This parrot is believed to be one of the most advanced users of human language in the animal world. If animals have any intelligence at all, this parrot will be the brightest. If this bird could read, he would be able to cope with a wide range of material unless the language is too technical. The more we look at the cognitive abilities of this parrot, the more advanced they seem to appear featuring even telepathy. If his owner opened cards with pictures in the next room, the parrot was likely to name the pictures correctly in more cases than would be by chance. Many clairvoyants would be ashamed suppose they competed with the bird in extrasensory perception. If only the bird could tell us more about his life we would hear fascinating revelations. Provided we were able to ask the bird of his needs, we could improve quality of this parrot's life for years, as parrots are long-lived.

 

4.1.6. Describe a situation in which everything went wrong. Focus on the use of conditionals.

 

 


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 866


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