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1. 3 main parts of Lang: the phonological system, the lexical S, the grammatical S.

2. G – the system of rules of changing of wds and the rules & regulations of their

combining in the sce 8mphgy (rules of words changing) & stx (of word comb…)

The aim of TG: present a theoretical description of the gr sys.

3. 2 planes of lang: plane of content (purely semantical);

plane of expression (material (formal) units of lang, apart from mng

So, G= unity of PofC & PofEx. But this corr-ce – diff: synmy & polsmy(‘s,s,s 1pe

1pc: will u come/be coming/ are u coming.. ?

4. Syntagmatic & Paradygmatic rel-ns.

Sntc – immediate, linear rel-ns btw wds in a segm-l seq-cy. Syntagma – 2 wds(H+A

4 types of Sgma: predicative, objective, attributive, adverbial. in praesentia

Pdmc exist btw elements of the sstm, outside the strings whr they occur. in absentia

5. Units of the lang: segmental & supraseg-l (not exist by themselves – inton-n, accents,

pauses, WO patterns). The hierarchy of seg-l units:

1)phonemic level; 2) morphemic; 3) lexemic (of wds); 4) phrasemic;5)prosemic (of sce

6) supra-prosemic (~paragraph); 7) of text; 8)discourse (f.e., a dialogue)

6. Eng – an anlcal lang.Mostly – in Vs: anl V-form (P,#,T,As,V,M) + Not-l V (inf/p-cle)

The analytical forms:

1) Tense & Aspect V-forms (Ct, Pf, PfCt, all Fut, ‘?’, ‘-‘)

2) The Passive Voice

3) The Analytical form of the Subj mood

4) Some degrees of comp-n of adjs.

Chief features of the analytical lang:

1. Comparatively few gram-l inflexions.

Endings: 1) s (3rdPSg), 2) s (Npl), 3) (r)en (Npl), 4) ’s (Poss.c),

5) ed (PastSim of reg V), 6) ing (P1,Ger), 7) –en (P2 irrV), 8) er,est

2. A rare use of sound alterations to denote gram-l forms (speak-spoke, man-men)

3. A wide use of prepositions to denote rel-ns btw objects.

4. Prominent use of WO to denote gr-l rel-ns, a more or less fixed WO.

5. Extensive use of substitutes (one, that, do)


1. HoTG is roughly divided into 2 period:

1) prescientific G (end 19th – 1900): the early pre-norm-ve Gs; prescriptive(n-ve)G

2) classical scientific G: clas sc G, structural (descr-ve) G, TGG.

I. 1) Until the 17th cent – “G” applied only to the study of Latin (thonly G studied in schl

1 of the most pop&earlis LGs written in Eng–William Lily–the 1st half of the 16th

imp coz the arrang of mat–f.e. in Bullokar’s G–5 cases of Ns & 6 genders(in Lily: 6-6)

1st half of the 17thJohnson’s & Butler’s Eng G (number of cases – 2)

By the middle of the 18th cent – in preNor Gs:

1. Mphgy: in LGs: N&adj – 2 kinds of N, particle – sep pofsp;

in EngGs: pofsp div into dec-ble&indecl (Bullkr); wds with #&r(Johnson)

wds with #&case and r(Butler). Dcl: N PN V Particles, Indcl:A,Pn,Con,In

Atthbeg of18thBrightland-4pofsp: names(N);qualities(adj),aff-ns(V),Pls (incl 4idcl

2. Syntax: in Brightland’s G – the introduction of the notion ‘sce’: simple, compound.

I. 2) from the 2nd hf of the 18th. The most influential – Lowth’s “Short Intr-n of EngG”

The aim – to reduce the EngL to rules & set up a standard of correct usage.

movement => an Eng Academy. Problem - # of cases. Lowth: 2 f N; 3 f PN (POSS)

Syntax: 3 principal pofsce: subj, attr(pr-te), obj. Div-n into Simple, CD, CX (trichot)

Clause: indep & dep. Dep:N, adj, adv clauses. Pse rfinite V (and clause has).

II.By the 19th the description of G was completed. Sweet “New Eng G, logical & hist-l”

“whatever is in general use in lang is for that reason gram-ly correct”.

ScG – both descr & expl-ry. Sweet: mng, form, f-n.

IIa Modern period: 1) 1900-1940’s – only 2 types: PScr & ClasSc; 2) fr 40’s – Str &Trsf

PScrGNesfield: 5 cases, while Sweet&Jesp: 2. CD: double (2 cl)& multiple (>)

CD analysed as a simple – that influenced PScr & ClGs.

ClScGKimball, Onions, Stokoe. Dealed with Stx. Diff-ce from Pscr – non-legisl app

aim – describe Eng scf-ly. MPHGY: 8 pofsp, grouping A & numr with adj.

STX: 5 pofsce: sub,ob,pr,attr,advm.

Jespersen–mostorgnl.MGY 5 pofsp,Mg-F-F STX:concept of ranks:a fur-ly3 brkg2 dog1

Dog (1) barks (2). BUT: I see (2) a dog (1). in 1,2 – the primary-the leadng el, 3-sub

IIb Structural criticized of PScr& ClSc. Fries – 50 hrs, frames. Bloomfieldian linguists.

IC analysis – the binary cutting of sces and their phrasal constituents.

IIcTGG – Chomsky. Generate infinite #... DS, SS. Kernel sces, transforms.

syntactic, semantic, phonological c-ts.

Lang has a base which contains the elementary phse str-ses. Sces are derived not

from other sces but from this underlying str-re.


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 1464

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