I. Give the meaning of each of these words and expressions as it is used in the text.
to be in charge of; to apply for; Product Development; drawings; Legal Department; a fair market for the product; it will take a few years for it to catch on; to run an advertising campaign; in will be to our advantage; to decide on size; to be the biggest selling point; a set that turns itself off; to think out; to include; to expand; meanwhile; a price tag; to surprise; each; in these case; failure; in many cases; however; to rob of success; very few of these; you know it is; now that you mention it.
II. Arrange the following words into sentences:
1. for, the, product, a market, fair there, is.
2. may, the bigger, selling, button, be, the automatic, go-to-sleep, point.
3. to, run, a campaign, good, advertising, have, shall, we.
4. the, will, still, product, testing, are, we.
5. soon, a, patent, apply, for, we, able, shell, to, be.
1. That cereal company wants to extend its line of ... .
2. There is no sure ... although market research tries to predict.
3. Very often, time and money are saved because a sure ... is stopped.
4. The plastic ladder is an example of ... , just as the computer is an ... .
5. The ... office in Washington, D.C. receives applications from many young inventors.
6. They want to have adequate ... and sound pricing policy to ensure the success if their new product.
V. Give antonyms to the following words and expressions.
Unsound pricing; inadequate promotion; poor selling methods; complete testing, to oneТs advantage; a failure; to save money; to ensure a success.
VI. Give definitions to the following terms:
a) Innovation (n.);
b) Adaptation (n.);
c) Catch on (v.);
d) Line (n.);
e) Product (n.).
VII. Question and answer practice. See Lesson 9.
VIII. Turn the following statements into Passive (affirmative, interrogative, negative):
1. She is preparing the drawings now.
2. They have already worked out the pricing.
3. I applied for a patent yesterday.
4. You could test the product.
5. We should study the market carefully.
IX. Insert the necessary words.
1. WeТll have to run a good ... campaign.
2. There is a ... market for our product.
3. It will take a few years for our product to ... .
4. IТm having ... prepared now.
5. We must to do the most complete ... before we begin to ... it.
6. Actually, most of our ... to have the patent on it.
X. Put in the prepositions:
1. When shall we apply ... a patent?
2. Have you decided ... size yet?
3. Has the pricing been worked ... yet?
4. A computer is an example ... an innovation.
5. IТm always falling asleep ... the middle ... the late show.
XI. Unscramble the following words:
ductpro, ketarm, dexpan, rifa, gechaar, nile, natept, tapatidona, vanotinoin, cadinotifim.
XII. Turn the following statements into Active:
1. Many innovations are manufactured by small-sale manufactures.
2. That business was formed by my friend.
3. The new line of products is being tested now by the Product Development Department.
4. The pricing will have been worked out by them in two weeks.
5. A sure failure has been stopped by the careful market research.
6. The success of this product can be ensured by sound pricing policy.
XIII. Make up sentences using the following expressions:
to be a success; to be responsible for; to apply for; to work out; to decide on; it will be to our advantage to ...
XIV. Answer the questions negatively using the pattern УTO HAVE SOMETHING DONEФ:
Model: Did they repair their car themselves? Ц No, they didnТt. They had their car repaired.
1. Has he prepared the drawing himself?
2. Must they do the testing themselves?
3. Did you study the market yourself?
4. Has she fixed her watch herself?
5. Will you sell your car yourself?
A. Give 5 adjectives which can be used to indicate how old or how modern a thing is, e.g. modern, old-fashioned.
B. Find 5 different adverbs which can be put in front of the adjectives in (A), e.g. particularly modern, usually modern.
XVI. Complete these statements, taking care to use a verb in a correct tense.
1. You can spend your money as ... .
2. The man was drawing as if ... .
3. He works as if ... .
4. It looked as though ... .
5. The shopkeeper counted out the change slowly as if ...
XVII. Translate into English, using modal verbs:
1. Ќам бы хотелось расширить ассортимент товаров.
2. Ќам пришлось снизить цену.
3. ƒолжно быть, он разговаривает с начальником производственного отдела.
4. ћожно мне посмотреть чертежи? Ц ƒа, конечно.
5. ¬ам бы следовало провести более тщательное исследование рынка.
XVIII. Write the letter of the expression which ought to be used:
1. We applied for a patent soon after ...
a). the product had been tested;
b). the product was tested;
c). the product was been tested.
2. We decided to do the job ...
3. If you could have ensured the success of our new product, we ...
a). would have been happy;
b). will be happy;
c). had been happy.
4. He was quite confident ...
a). that we will win the market;
b). that we shall win the market;
c). that we would win the market.
5. He bought a new car and then decided to sell ...
6. Last year he decided that he ...
a). has been retiring;
b). will retire;
c). would retire.
7. The number of new products ... steadily increasing.
8. The main problem of promoting innovations ... already been mentioned.
9. If the market had been studied carefully, our product ... .
a). will be a success;
b). would be a success;
c). would have be a success;
d). would have been a success.
10. Who has the drawings now? Ц Mr. Brown ...
a). is having it;
b). is having them;
c). has it;
d). has them.
XIX. Change the following into indirect speech, noticing that you must replace colloquialisms and slang expressions by more formal expressions.
a). He said, УMy boss always want to see me slogging away in his office. I lead a proper dogТs life. He talks like mad most of the time and nearly blows his top when anything goes wrong.Ф
b). УHe is stony-broke and his marriage has gone on the rocks,Ф Mary said.
c). He said, УI had a go at the sum but got fed up when I couldnТt do it.Ф
XX. Explain what emotion or state of mind is usually indicated by each of the following:
1) He raised his eyebrows.
2) He shook his head.
3) He nodded his head.
4) She stamped her foot.
7) He shook his first.
8) He scratched his head. 9) She put her hands on her hips.
5) She clapped her hands.
6) His lips curled downwards.
10)She wrinkled up her nose.
XXII. Subjects for Discussion and Composition.
A. Discoveries and Inventions
What is the difference between a discovery and an invention? Can you give some examples of each, to make the difference? What was the greatest era of geographical discoveries? What was the era of scientific discoveries and inventions? What scientific discoveries have had the greatest effect on our lives? What medical discoveries have? What inventions have?
B. The Benefits of Science to the Community
Have you ever studied science? Do you know any scientists personally? What are the uses of pure science to a community? It what way does applied science benefit our own community?