4) Shiny / large /expensive / brown/ leather /case
5) Square / wooden / old / nice
6) Modern / stone / large / beautiful / cottage
7) Porcelain / tea / blue / thin / old / cup
8) Young / blonde / handsome / tall / man
9) Old / several / English / beautiful / castles
10) Pretty / French / young / a lot of / girls
11) Dark blue / best / silk / my / shirt
12) Young / many / factory / German / workers
2. Open the brackets and give the comparative or superlative degree of the following adjectives and adverbs.
1. That is (incredible) story I have ever heard. 2. It is not always (bright) students who do well in tests. 3. Terylene shirts are (hard) wearing, but cotton shirts are much (comfortable). 4. Which is (deep), Lake Michigan or Lake Superior? 5. She is far (self-confident) than she used to be. 6. (tall) man among the guests is a basketball player. 7. I like both of them, but I think Kate is (easy) to talk to. 8. Most people are (well of) than their parents used to be. 9. She has a lot to be thankful for; but (sad) thing of all is that she does not realize it. 10. I want to buy a car – (powerful) one you have.
3. Open the brackets and give the correct forms of the comparative constructions.
Example: (Much) you read, (well) you will know English. – The more you read, the better you will know English.
1. (Interesting) the book is, (fast) you read it. 2. (Early) you come, (quickly) we finish the work. 3. (Hot) the weather is, (bad) I feel. 4. (Soon) he takes the medicine, (well) he will feel. 5. (Little) she ate, (angry) she was. 6. (Long) the children saw the film, (frightened) they felt. 7. (Late) you come, (little) you will sleep. 8. (Much) you study, (clever) you will become. 9. (Cold) the winter is, (hot) the summer will be. 10. (Near) you come up, (well) you will see the picture.
4. Complete the sentences with than … or as … as or the same … as.
1. Everybody was shocked. Nobody was more shocked ____ Nick. 2. I wish you were ____ pretty ____ your mother. 3. He is ____ age ____ my brother. 4. I earn ____ much money ____ he does. But she earns more ____ we both. 5. I ordered ____ drink ____ he did. 6. Your car is much more powerful ____ mine, but my small car is ____ expensive ____ yours. 7. I spent ____ much money ____ he did. But I didn’t spend ____ sum ____ Mary did. I spent much less money ____ she. 8. Petrol is more expensive now ____ a few years ago. 9. Prices are not ____ in the 1990s. 10. Paris is ____ exciting ____ London.
1. His father is a very short man. I’d better say that he is the … man I have ever seen.
a) shortest b) most short
2. I think that Shakespeare is … author in the world.
a) the most famous b) more famous
3. Have you already known the … news of today?
a) last b) latest
4. The … type of thermometer is the mercury thermometer.
a) commonest b) more common
5. My native town is the … in this region.
a) largerest b) largest
6. My suitcase is … than yours. Let’s change!
a) more heavy b) heavier
7. Little Peter saw a mouse and wasn’t frightened by it. Everyone realized he was … boy in our street.
a) more courageous b) the most courageous
8. They said that we would find our … instructions on our desks in the office.
a) further b) farther
9. I can’t afford such an expensive dress. I’ll buy something …
a) more cheap b) cheaper
10. … the sun, … the days.
a) The brighter, the warmer b) Brighter, warmer
11. … woman in our village is ninety years old.
a) The oldest b) Older
12. This book is not interesting. It is … than the book I read before.
a) worse b) worst
13. Tom’s story about his vacations is … than hers.
a) much more thrilling b) a lot more thrilling
14. She wondered … if he wanted anything and if she could hear him if he called.
a) more restless b) restlessly
15. Your husband is … his father.
a) more generous b) as generous as
16. Their family lives in … house in this street.
a) further b) the furthest
17. Take the dictionary. It will be … to translate this text.
a) easier b) easyer
18. It’s … to make up a question than to give an answer.
a) more difficult b) difficulter
19. Our house is … than yours.
a) bigger b) the biggest
20. Mary’s hair is … than mine.
a) longer b) more long
21. Edward is … football player.
a) better b) a good
22. Look at Lora! She buys a new dress every week. Her husband is getting … and … every day.
a) richer, richer b) more rich, more rich
23. One of … language families in the world is the Indo-European family.
a) most large b) the largest
24. Florence was … city of its time.
a) the most rich b) the richest
25. I visit my cousin … than I visit my grandparents.
a) less often b) most often
26. He gave … of the gifts to his … sister.
a) the least expensive, elder b) more expensive, older
27. Our garden is … than Mr. Wilson’s one.
a) much larger b) more lager
28. Amanda is the … girl in our class; she hardly knows how much is five and five.
a) most intelligent b) least intelligent
1. Whom did Jean hear talking in the queue?
2. Why was Jean's patience beginning to itch?
3. Why couldn't Jean go through the quick till?
4. When did Jean begin to rearrange the items in her shopping basket?
5. Was Jean the last in the queue or not?
6. What did Jean see in her own shopping basket?
7. Whom did the cashier suddenly address?
8. What caught Jean's eye suddenly? Why?
9. What did Jean remember about the shopping trips with her friend?
10. Why did Jean put the book back in its place?
11. How much did the blonde woman pay?
12. Did Jean see the two women leave the shop or not?
13. How much did Jean pay?
14. Why did Jean think that people behind her were becoming impatient?
15. What did Jean feel after she had left the supermarket?
16. What did Jean think about while she was going towards her car?
17. What did she suddenly decide?
I. Find in the text words or phrases similar in meaning to the following.
A cash desk, a purchase, coca-cola, a plastic bag, big size cartons, to calculate, goods, a heap, half-empty.
II. Give your own words or expressions similar in meaning to the ones from the text.
To pinpoint, to fire questions, to rearrange, to give a blank look, to catch one's eye, a snatch of conversation, to flush, to grit one's teeth together, to beg.
Below see the list of the words from the text. Think of words opposite in meaning to them.
familiar to push
impatient to buy
The author herself uses synonymous words and expressions in the text. Say how otherwise the author puts the following.
to count — to continue —
to give over money — small salad cream—
elephantine — write out a check —
wire basket — cram in —
When postpositions are added to verbs, the meanings of the latter can utterly change. Choose the right one from the two given in brackets. Explain the difference in meanings.
1. (put; put up)
a) The dark woman ... all the stuff into her carrier bag.
b) Jean thought that she had to ... with a loss of time.
2. (turn; turn up)
a) Jean ... her head and saw a queue behind her.
b) Jean remembered the time when he suddenly ... and they went on their shopping trips.
3. (pick; pick up)
a) The customers ... goods from the racks while walking along the aisles.
b) Last summer there were a lot of blueberries in the forest. We often went there to ... them.
4. (make; make out)
a) The gentleman at the till asked the cashier to ... a bill for him.
b) Jean thought that she would ... a salad in the evening, probably with chicken.
5. (write; write out)
a) When Jean and he were together they sometimes ... letters to each other.
b) He always paid in cash and never ... cheques.
6. (carry; carry on)
a) A lot of women never ... heavy bags, as they think it to be not ladylike.
b) The people in the queue were interested in the end of the story and she ... with it.
7. (pass; pass down)
a) The woman at the till... the cardboard box to her husband and they both left.
b) Jean ... the rack with family-size cartons of cornflakes indifferently.
8. (come; come round)
a) Parting with her friend Jean tried to seem careless and said casually, '... some time'.
b) '...to see me', the blonde woman said to her friend.
9. (cram; cram in)
a) Though the box was already full the woman managed to ... the last pack offish fingers among the rest.
b) The supermarket was ... with customers on that day.
10. (walk, walk off)
a) Jean never ... to the supermarket as the way was far too long; she went there by car.
b) Slowly Jean ... from the supermarket deep in her thoughts.
Find the English equivalents to the following words or expressions.
I. Pick out from the text the terms used to denote:
a) objects we use to put our purchases in,
b) amounts or quantities of some stuff,
c) certain details of the interior in a supermarket,
d) names of foodstuffs and drinks.
II. Make up a list of products which Jean saw
a) in her own wire basket,
b) in other people's baskets or trollies.
III. Find and read aloud sentences saying
a) what Jean thought of herself and her purchases,
b) what Jean thought of other people and their purchases.
Complete the statements by choosing the answer which you think fits best.
1. Mother never buys goods displayed on the racks with the notice "... offer".
A. specific B. special C. particular
2. The customers are asked to load their purchases on to the conveyor ....
A. strap B. line C. belt
3. It is a lot more convenient to push a ... than to carry a wire basket in a supermarket.
A. trolley B. roller C. van
4. While shopping my brother always tries to go through a ... till, as he hates queues.
A. swift B. fast C. quick
5. Housewives prefer to buy ... packets of stuff, as it is a little bit cheaper.
A. gross-size B. family-size C. block-size
6. Sometimes the queues at... points are so long that the idea of leaving the supermarket without buying anything may look attractive.
A. check-out B. check-in C. check-up
7. Customers are not allowed to put things in their own bags in supermarkets; they are suposed to use ....
A. iron baskets B. shop baskets C. wire baskets
8. A lot of people prefer to ... a cheque than to pay in cash.
A. write out B. write in C. write up
9. Salesgirls usually put all goods bought in a supermarket into ... for the customers' convenience.
A. trade bags B. carrier bags C. supermarket bags
10. 'Here's your ... from a ten-pound note', said the cashier giving me three pounds.
A. exchange B. change C. bill
Work in pairs. Discuss with your partner some interesting shopping experience. Use at least five expressions from the list below.
To fall into silence, to be sure, to be sick of throwing away something, to feel one's cheeks flush, on one's hands and knees, to grit one's teeth together, to look behind, a favourite maxim, from time to time, to scream out from the front cover, foods one can get into, after all, eye to eye, to give a blank look, to hand somebody something, bold letters, to fire questions, a soap opera, ups and downs, to sum up, to carry on with the story, to have the right money, a sense of relief, to be away from, to feel out of place, to feel better in the fresh air, to come round unexpectedly, to torn up, to catch one's eye.
Fill in the gaps with the prepositions from the list: into, through, of, together, for, by, beside, in, on to.
1. The girl thought that glass bottles of milk would be too heavy to carry and changed them ... plastic packets.
2. One can tell a good customer ... the way he or she chooses goods.
3. The lady screamed and all people in the hall immediately fell ... silence.
4. The guard from the security service helped the lady to go out of the shop and she felt better ... the fresh air.
5. Anyone can get sick... the long queues at check-out points.
6. The customers are asked to put the stuff...... the conveyor belt.
7. If one has got not more than three items, he or she can go ... a quick till.
8. When the queue is too long one can do nothing but grit his or her teeth ... and wait dutifully.
9. The most annoying thing about shopping is standing ... the till and watching how slowly people pay.
Express the same idea using different wording and grammar.
1. Jean noticed the other woman giving an accompaniment of nods and headshaking at the appropriate parts.
2. Jean felt her patience beginning to itch.
3. There was nothing else for it — she'd just have to wait.
4. She was sick of throwing away half-used bottles.
5. Jean looked behind and saw that she was hemmed in by three large trollies.
6. She was addressing a man who had been poised and waiting to write out a cheque for a few moments.
7. Jean looked again at her basket and began to feel the familiar feeling of regret that visited her from time to time.
8. Nodding in agreement with her thoughts Jean found herself eye to eye with the blonde woman.
9. She picked up the cookery book and felt the frustration of indecision.
10. She peeled off three ten pound notes and handed them to the cashier.
11. She had the right money, it just meant sorting her change out.
12. She had an inclination that the people behind her were becoming impatient.
13. She noticed their stack of items all lined and waiting, it seemed, for starters orders.
14. She felt a sense of relief to be away from the mass of people.
Speak about Jean's visit to the supermarket:
1. in the third person;
2. in the person of Jean herself;
3. in the person of the blonde woman;
4. in the person of the cashier.
1. What can you say about Jean as a person? Try to derive information from the minor details of her behaviour.
2. Was parting with her friend a shocking experience for Jean or not?
3. What can you say about the two women?
4. Do you agree that one can always tell a person by their shopping?
5. Why does the story end with a question? What does it mean?
I. Imagine that your mother gives you a shopping list, which you see below. Think in what shops you can buy these things and put the names of items in the graphs of the chart.
a loaf of brown bread 1 kg of pork
1 large cod a bottle of vinegar
1 kg of pork 2 medium-sized herrings
3 lemons a tin of sardines in oil
0.3 kg of ham 2 kg of potatoes
1 small cabbage a large chicken
a tin of condensed milk biscuits
a bunch of radishes a bag ofnour
a drum of margarine a 0.5 kg pack of sour cream
0.5 kg of cheese 0.2 kg of butter
II. Sum up what you have written and say what and where you can buy.
► Pattern: I can buy ... at the baker's.
I. Match the phrases in the left column with the words in the right column.
1. a bottle of A. jam
2. a packet of B. parsley
3. a drum of C. toothpaste
4. a cake of D. cleanser
5. a carton of E. juice
6. a jar of F. chocolates
7. a tin of G. eggs
8. a tube of H. honey
9. a bunch of I. sugar
10. a box of J. soap
11. a tub of K. luncheon meat
II. Think and say what else can be sold in cartons, bunches, etc.
I. Say what and how much you should buy if you are going to make:
1) Russian beet and cabbage soup — borsch;
2) Salad which they call in Russia "Olivier salad";
3) An apple pie.
► Pattern: If I am going to make ... I will buy ....
II. Say what and how much you buy to cook your favourite dish.
III. Guess what a housewife was going to cook if her shopping list included:
►Pattern: The housewife was going to cook ... if she bought....
Standing in a queue at the check-out is a boring business. Some people invent games to make the time pass quicker. One of them comes to guessing what people's lifestyles are likely to be judging by the contents of their shopping baskets.
I. Read the following passages and try to say something about people's families, homes, lifestyles.
Body language can tell a stranger a lot about one's personality, so can the fruits of one's shopping expedition.
Yesterday I observed a beautiful young lady. While her little daughter begged unsuccessfully for a bun, she was carefully choosing a shampoo, hair conditioner and bath perfume. Then she picked up a couple of cinema magazines and went to the check-out.
I looked down into her trolley and shuddered: three gallons of milk, 3 loaves of bread, four chickens, a mountain of baby-food jars, cakes and pies.
I especially like to observe male shoppers. I don't mean househusbands dutifiilly checking items off a list. I prefer a gourmet who knows the real taste of things: imported cheeses, exotic spices, a whole leg of lamb, early asparagus.
I felt hostility flowing from the woman standing behind me in the supermarket check-out queue. Had I cut in front of her? She was glaring into my basket. I quickly surveyed my selections to see what could be generating such hostility. Let's see: two bottles of champagne, a lovely avocado, a pound of shrimp, and a quart of purified water.
II. Fancy what one can see in a shopping basket of:
1) a good housewife;
2) a divorced man;
3) a woman on a diet;
4) a hearty eater;
5) someone expecting guests.
III. Think of other games you can play in your head to make the time pass when you are waiting in a queue.
I. Read and translate the following dialogues. Reproduce them.
○ Dialogue 1
At the Grocery store
Grocer: Hello, Ann, how are you doing today?
Ann: Fine, thanks. How are you?
Grocer: I am okay, thank you. What can I get for you, Ann?
Ann: I 'd like half a pound of butter, a pound jar of strawberry jam, a large bottle of vinegar and a tin of sardines.
Grocer: Will that be all?
Ann: No, I'd also like a small-sized packet of mushroom soup and a piece of smoked bacon. Grocer Will this do? It's all we have at the moment, I'm afraid.
Ann: No, it's much too fat. I wanted it leaner. I think I'd better take some ham instead. How much is it?
Grocer: Eighty pence a pound.
Ann: Good. Half a pound, please. That'll be all. How much does it come to?
Grocer: Five pounds thirty seven pence, please.
Ann: Right. Here is six pounds.
Grocer: And here is your change.
Grocer: Good-bye, Ann. Thank you. Come tomorrow, we'll have a new stock.
○ Dialogue 2
At the Butcher's
Shop assistant: Can I help you, madam?
Mrs. Gi1bert: I'd like a leg of lamb. Do you sell it?
Shop assistant: Yes, we do, but I'm afraid we've sold out at the moment. If you'd care to call in tomorrow.
Mrs. Gi1bert: Thank you, I won't bother! I'll buy some pork instead.
Shop assistant: Oh, yes. We've got excellent choice today. What part would you like to get — shoulder, leg or some other?
Mrs. Gilbert: This bit of shoulder is fine with me.
Shop assistant: Okay. It weighs four pounds.
Mrs.Gilbert: I'll also have a chicken.
Shop assistant: Boiling or frying?
Mrs. Gilbert: Boiling, please.
Shop assistant: Will this do?
Mrs. Gilbert: Nice. That will be all. How much is it?
Shop assistant: Three pounds twenty pence.
Mrs.Gilbert: Here you are.
Shop assistant: Your change, madam. Thank you. Have a nice day.
○ Dialogue 3
At the Greengrocer's
Greengrocer: Good morning, Mrs. Daisy. How are you this morning?
Mrs. Daisy: Fine, thanks. And how are you?
Greengrocer: I'm having a little trouble. Some of my supplies aren't here yet. So I don't have tomatoes and peppers.
Mrs. Daisy: Oh, that's a shame. Will you have some later?
Greengrocer: Oh, yes, they will be delivered in the afternoon. I'll save them for you.
Mrs. Daisy: Thanks. It's very kind of you. And now I'll take a bag of potatoes, a couple of beets and some carrots.
Greengrocer: All right. Notice the fruit we've got today. The peaches are very good.
Mrs. Daisy: The peaches do look good. What do they cost? Greengrocer: Peaches are quite cheap this time of the year. Thirty pence a pound.
Mrs.Daisy: That's a real bargain. I'll take three pounds.
Greengrocer: Okay. Now, what else?
Mrs. Daisy: Well, that's all for today. How much do I owe you?
Greengrocer: That's four pounds seventy five pence. Here's your change from your five pound note — twenty five pence.
Mrs. Daisy: Thank you. Good-bye.
Greengrocer: Good-bye, Mrs. Daisy. Thanks a lot.
II. Pick out from the three dialogues sentences, which denote the shop assistants'
a) greeting their customers,
b) offering goods,
c) telling the price of goods.
III. Pick out from the three dialogues sentences, which denote the customer's
a) greeting shop assistants,
b) telling what they need,
c) asking about the price.
IV. Make up your own dialogues and enact them in class.
Discuss the following points in class.
1. What is preferable for you — to buy food in a big supermarket or in small shops? Why?
2. Where are the best shops for food in your city or town?
3. Speak about foodstuffs sold in your shops. Say whether they are shipped in or grown locally; say which are expensive and inexpensive; say what foodstuffs which you might have seen in the shops abroad are not sold in this country.
4. Do they sell foodstuffs under the counter nowadays? What kind of goods can those be?
5. Do you pay attention to the brand name when you buy food? If not, how do you make your choice?
6. What is your personal style of shopping for food? Do you buy at once or do you take your time to look around for lower prices?
7. How often do you buy very expensive foodstuffs? What kind of products are those? When does it happen?
Match the English idioms in the left column with their Russian equivalents in the right column.