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Word analysis

1. Whom did Jean hear talking in the queue?

2. Why was Jean's patience beginning to itch?

3. Why couldn't Jean go through the quick till?

4. When did Jean begin to rearrange the items in her shopping basket?

5. Was Jean the last in the queue or not?

6. What did Jean see in her own shopping basket?

7. Whom did the cashier suddenly address?

8. What caught Jean's eye suddenly? Why?

9. What did Jean remember about the shopping trips with her friend?

10. Why did Jean put the book back in its place?

11. How much did the blonde woman pay?

12. Did Jean see the two women leave the shop or not?

13. How much did Jean pay?

14. Why did Jean think that people behind her were becoming impatient?

15. What did Jean feel after she had left the supermarket?

16. What did Jean think about while she was going towards her car?

17. What did she suddenly decide?


Exercise 1

I. Find in the text words or phrases similar in meaning to the following.

A cash desk, a purchase, coca-cola, a plastic bag, big size car­tons, to calculate, goods, a heap, half-empty.

II. Give your own words or expressions similar in meaning to the ones from the text.

To pinpoint, to fire questions, to rearrange, to give a blank look, to catch one's eye, a snatch of conversation, to flush, to grit one's teeth together, to beg.

Exercise 2

Below see the list of the words from the text. Think of words opposite in meaning to them.

extraordinary oriental

appropriate traditional

triumphant empty

familiar to push

individual indecision

impatient to buy

Exercise 3

The author herself uses synonymous words and expressions in the text. Say how otherwise the author puts the following.

to count — to continue —

to give over money — small salad cream—

elephantine — write out a check —

wire basket — cram in —

Exercise 4

When postpositions are added to verbs, the meanings of the latter can ut­terly change. Choose the right one from the two given in brackets. Explain the difference in meanings.

1. (put; put up)

a) The dark woman ... all the stuff into her carrier bag.

b) Jean thought that she had to ... with a loss of time.

2. (turn; turn up)

a) Jean ... her head and saw a queue behind her.

b) Jean remembered the time when he suddenly ... and they went on their shopping trips.

3. (pick; pick up)

a) The customers ... goods from the racks while walking along the aisles.

b) Last summer there were a lot of blueberries in the for­est. We often went there to ... them.

4. (make; make out)

a) The gentleman at the till asked the cashier to ... a bill for him.

b) Jean thought that she would ... a salad in the evening, probably with chicken.

5. (write; write out)

a) When Jean and he were together they sometimes ... let­ters to each other.

b) He always paid in cash and never ... cheques.

6. (carry; carry on)

a) A lot of women never ... heavy bags, as they think it to be not ladylike.

b) The people in the queue were interested in the end of the story and she ... with it.

7. (pass; pass down)

a) The woman at the till... the cardboard box to her hus­band and they both left.

b) Jean ... the rack with family-size cartons of cornflakes indifferently.

8. (come; come round)

a) Parting with her friend Jean tried to seem careless and said casually, '... some time'.

b) '...to see me', the blonde woman said to her friend.

9. (cram; cram in)

a) Though the box was already full the woman managed to ... the last pack offish fingers among the rest.

b) The supermarket was ... with customers on that day.

10. (walk, walk off)

a) Jean never ... to the supermarket as the way was far too long; she went there by car.

b) Slowly Jean ... from the supermarket deep in her thoughts.

Exercise 5

Find the English equivalents to the following words or expressions.

I. Pick out from the text the terms used to denote:

a) objects we use to put our purchases in,

b) amounts or quantities of some stuff,

c) certain details of the interior in a supermarket,

d) names of foodstuffs and drinks.

II. Make up a list of products which Jean saw

a) in her own wire basket,

b) in other people's baskets or trollies.

III. Find and read aloud sentences saying

a) what Jean thought of herself and her purchases,

b) what Jean thought of other people and their purchases.

Exercise 8

Complete the statements by choosing the answer which you think fits best.

1. Mother never buys goods displayed on the racks with the notice "... offer".

A. specific B. special C. particular

2. The customers are asked to load their purchases on to the conveyor ....

A. strap B. line C. belt

3. It is a lot more convenient to push a ... than to carry a wire basket in a supermarket.

A. trolley B. roller C. van

4. While shopping my brother always tries to go through a ... till, as he hates queues.

A. swift B. fast C. quick

5. Housewives prefer to buy ... packets of stuff, as it is a little bit cheaper.

A. gross-size B. family-size C. block-size

6. Sometimes the queues at... points are so long that the idea of leaving the supermarket without buying anything may look attractive.

A. check-out B. check-in C. check-up

7. Customers are not allowed to put things in their own bags in supermarkets; they are suposed to use ....

A. iron baskets B. shop baskets C. wire baskets

8. A lot of people prefer to ... a cheque than to pay in cash.

A. write out B. write in C. write up

9. Salesgirls usually put all goods bought in a supermarket into ... for the customers' convenience.

A. trade bags B. carrier bags C. supermarket bags

10. 'Here's your ... from a ten-pound note', said the cashier giving me three pounds.

A. exchange B. change C. bill

Exercise 9

Work in pairs. Discuss with your partner some interesting shopping expe­rience. Use at least five expressions from the list below.

To fall into silence, to be sure, to be sick of throwing away something, to feel one's cheeks flush, on one's hands and knees, to grit one's teeth together, to look behind, a favourite maxim, from time to time, to scream out from the front cover, foods one can get into, after all, eye to eye, to give a blank look, to hand somebody something, bold letters, to fire ques­tions, a soap opera, ups and downs, to sum up, to carry on with the story, to have the right money, a sense of relief, to be away from, to feel out of place, to feel better in the fresh air, to come round unexpectedly, to torn up, to catch one's eye.

Exercise 10

Fill in the gaps with the prepositions from the list: into, through, of, together, for, by, beside, in, on to.

1. The girl thought that glass bottles of milk would be too heavy to carry and changed them ... plastic packets.

2. One can tell a good customer ... the way he or she chooses goods.

3. The lady screamed and all people in the hall immediately fell ... silence.

4. The guard from the security service helped the lady to go out of the shop and she felt better ... the fresh air.

5. Anyone can get sick... the long queues at check-out points.

6. The customers are asked to put the stuff...... the conveyor belt.

7. If one has got not more than three items, he or she can go ... a quick till.

8. When the queue is too long one can do nothing but grit his or her teeth ... and wait dutifully.

9. The most annoying thing about shopping is standing ... the till and watching how slowly people pay.

Exercise 11

Express the same idea using different wording and grammar.

1. Jean noticed the other woman giving an accompaniment of nods and headshaking at the appropriate parts.

2. Jean felt her patience beginning to itch.

3. There was nothing else for it — she'd just have to wait.

4. She was sick of throwing away half-used bottles.

5. Jean looked behind and saw that she was hemmed in by three large trollies.

6. She was addressing a man who had been poised and waiting to write out a cheque for a few moments.

7. Jean looked again at her basket and began to feel the famil­iar feeling of regret that visited her from time to time.

8. Nodding in agreement with her thoughts Jean found herself eye to eye with the blonde woman.

9. She picked up the cookery book and felt the frustration of indecision.

10. She peeled off three ten pound notes and handed them to the cashier.

11. She had the right money, it just meant sorting her change out.

12. She had an inclination that the people behind her were be­coming impatient.

13. She noticed their stack of items all lined and waiting, it seemed, for starters orders.

14. She felt a sense of relief to be away from the mass of people.

Exercise 13

Speak about Jean's visit to the supermarket:

1. in the third person;

2. in the person of Jean herself;

3. in the person of the blonde woman;

4. in the person of the cashier.

Exercise 14

Discussion points.

1. What can you say about Jean as a person? Try to derive in­formation from the minor details of her behaviour.

2. Was parting with her friend a shocking experience for Jean or not?

3. What can you say about the two women?

4. Do you agree that one can always tell a person by their shopping?

5. Why does the story end with a question? What does it mean?

Exercise 15

I. Imagine that your mother gives you a shopping list, which you see be­low. Think in what shops you can buy these things and put the names of items in the graphs of the chart.

a loaf of brown bread 1 kg of pork

1 large cod a bottle of vinegar

1 kg of pork 2 medium-sized herrings

3 lemons a tin of sardines in oil

0.3 kg of ham 2 kg of potatoes

1 small cabbage a large chicken

a tin of condensed milk biscuits

a bunch of radishes a bag ofnour

a drum of margarine a 0.5 kg pack of sour cream

0.5 kg of cheese 0.2 kg of butter

dairy shop butcher's baker's fishmonger's grocer's greengrocer's


II. Sum up what you have written and say what and where you can buy.

Pattern: I can buy ... at the baker's.

Exercise 16

I. Match the phrases in the left column with the words in the right column.

1. a bottle of A. jam

2. a packet of B. parsley

3. a drum of C. toothpaste

4. a cake of D. cleanser

5. a carton of E. juice

6. a jar of F. chocolates

7. a tin of G. eggs

8. a tube of H. honey

9. a bunch of I. sugar

10. a box of J. soap

11. a tub of K. luncheon meat

II. Think and say what else can be sold in cartons, bunches, etc.


Exercise 20

I. Say what and how much you should buy if you are going to make:

1) Russian beet and cabbage soup — borsch;

2) Salad which they call in Russia "Olivier salad";

3) An apple pie.

Pattern: If I am going to make ... I will buy ....

II. Say what and how much you buy to cook your favourite dish.

III. Guess what a housewife was going to cook if her shopping list included:

1. 2 lbs beef; 1 lb pork; white bread; eggs; 1/2 lb onions, 1 bot­tle milk.

2. 2 lbs wheat flour; 1/2 doz eggs; 2 bottles milk; 1 pack yeast;

1/2 Ib sugar.

3. 1/2 lb rice; 1 lb smoked fish; 1 lb onions; 1/2 dbz eggs; 1 jar mayonnaise.

4. 4 lbs lamb; 2 lbs tomatoes; 2 lbs onions; 1 bottle dry white wine; 1 pack pepper.

5. 2 lbs pork; 1 bag potatoes; 1 lb carrots; 1 head cabbage; 1/2 lbs onions; 1 bunch celery; 1 bunch parsley; 1 pack laurel leaves.

Pattern: The housewife was going to cook ... if she bought....

Exercise 21

Standing in a queue at the check-out is a boring business. Some people invent games to make the time pass quicker. One of them comes to guess­ing what people's lifestyles are likely to be judging by the contents of their shopping baskets.

I. Read the following passages and try to say something about people's families, homes, lifestyles.

Body language can tell a stranger a lot about one's person­ality, so can the fruits of one's shopping expedition.

Yesterday I observed a beautiful young lady. While her little daughter begged unsuccessfully for a bun, she was carefully choosing a shampoo, hair conditioner and bath perfume. Then she picked up a couple of cinema magazines and went to the check-out.

I looked down into her trolley and shuddered: three gallons of milk, 3 loaves of bread, four chickens, a mountain of baby-food jars, cakes and pies.

I especially like to observe male shoppers. I don't mean househusbands dutifiilly checking items off a list. I prefer a gourmet who knows the real taste of things: imported cheeses, exotic spices, a whole leg of lamb, early asparagus.

I felt hostility flowing from the woman standing behind me in the supermarket check-out queue. Had I cut in front of her? She was glaring into my basket. I quickly surveyed my selec­tions to see what could be generating such hostility. Let's see: two bottles of champagne, a lovely avocado, a pound of shrimp, and a quart of purified water.

II. Fancy what one can see in a shopping basket of:

1) a good housewife;

2) a divorced man;

3) a woman on a diet;

4) a hearty eater;

5) someone expecting guests.

III. Think of other games you can play in your head to make the time pass when you are waiting in a queue.

Exercise 22

I. Read and translate the following dialogues. Reproduce them.

○ Dialogue 1

At the Grocery store

Grocer: Hello, Ann, how are you doing today?

Ann: Fine, thanks. How are you?

Grocer: I am okay, thank you. What can I get for you, Ann?

Ann: I 'd like half a pound of butter, a pound jar of straw­berry jam, a large bottle of vinegar and a tin of sar­dines.

Grocer: Will that be all?

Ann: No, I'd also like a small-sized packet of mushroom soup and a piece of smoked bacon. Grocer Will this do? It's all we have at the moment, I'm afraid.

Ann: No, it's much too fat. I wanted it leaner. I think I'd better take some ham instead. How much is it?

Grocer: Eighty pence a pound.

Ann: Good. Half a pound, please. That'll be all. How much does it come to?

Grocer: Five pounds thirty seven pence, please.

Ann: Right. Here is six pounds.

Grocer: And here is your change.

Ann: Thanks.

Grocer: Good-bye, Ann. Thank you. Come tomorrow, we'll have a new stock.

○ Dialogue 2

At the Butcher's

Shop assistant: Can I help you, madam?

Mrs. Gi1bert: I'd like a leg of lamb. Do you sell it?

Shop assistant: Yes, we do, but I'm afraid we've sold out at the moment. If you'd care to call in tomorrow.

Mrs. Gi1bert: Thank you, I won't bother! I'll buy some pork instead.

Shop assistant: Oh, yes. We've got excellent choice to­day. What part would you like to get — shoulder, leg or some other?

Mrs. Gilbert: This bit of shoulder is fine with me.

Shop assistant: Okay. It weighs four pounds.

Mrs.Gilbert: I'll also have a chicken.

Shop assistant: Boiling or frying?

Mrs. Gilbert: Boiling, please.

Shop assistant: Will this do?

Mrs. Gilbert: Nice. That will be all. How much is it?

Shop assistant: Three pounds twenty pence.

Mrs.Gilbert: Here you are.

Shop assistant: Your change, madam. Thank you. Have a nice day.

○ Dialogue 3

At the Greengrocer's

Greengrocer: Good morning, Mrs. Daisy. How are you this morning?

Mrs. Daisy: Fine, thanks. And how are you?

Greengrocer: I'm having a little trouble. Some of my supplies aren't here yet. So I don't have tomatoes and peppers.

Mrs. Daisy: Oh, that's a shame. Will you have some later?

Greengrocer: Oh, yes, they will be delivered in the after­noon. I'll save them for you.

Mrs. Daisy: Thanks. It's very kind of you. And now I'll take a bag of potatoes, a couple of beets and some carrots.

Greengrocer: All right. Notice the fruit we've got today. The peaches are very good.

Mrs. Daisy: The peaches do look good. What do they cost? Greengrocer: Peaches are quite cheap this time of the year. Thirty pence a pound.

Mrs.Daisy: That's a real bargain. I'll take three pounds.

Greengrocer: Okay. Now, what else?

Mrs. Daisy: Well, that's all for today. How much do I owe you?

Greengrocer: That's four pounds seventy five pence. Here's your change from your five pound note — twenty five pence.

Mrs. Daisy: Thank you. Good-bye.

Greengrocer: Good-bye, Mrs. Daisy. Thanks a lot.

II. Pick out from the three dialogues sentences, which denote the shop as­sistants'

a) greeting their customers,

b) offering goods,

c) telling the price of goods.

III. Pick out from the three dialogues sentences, which denote the cus­tomer's

a) greeting shop assistants,

b) telling what they need,

c) asking about the price.

IV. Make up your own dialogues and enact them in class.

Exercise 26

Discuss the following points in class.

1. What is preferable for you — to buy food in a big supermar­ket or in small shops? Why?

2. Where are the best shops for food in your city or town?

3. Speak about foodstuffs sold in your shops. Say whether they are shipped in or grown locally; say which are expensive and inexpensive; say what foodstuffs which you might have seen in the shops abroad are not sold in this country.

4. Do they sell foodstuffs under the counter nowadays? What kind of goods can those be?

5. Do you pay attention to the brand name when you buy food? If not, how do you make your choice?

6. What is your personal style of shopping for food? Do you buy at once or do you take your time to look around for lower prices?

7. How often do you buy very expensive foodstuffs? What kind of products are those? When does it happen?

Exercise 27

Match the English idioms in the left column with their Russian equivalents in the right column.

1. to put a hole in one's pocketbook


Exercise 2

Translate into English in writing.



Word analysis

Part 1. Morphemes are recyclable. Word analysis is such a powerful skill because the same morphemes show up over and over in many different words. Once you've learned the meaning of a morpheme and learned to spot it in its different forms, you'll know something about the hundreds of words that use it. For example know the Latin morpheme duc 'lead,draw,pull'. Here are a few of the words which use it:

reduce 'to pull back'

deduce 'to draw away from'

seduce 'to lead apart'

produce 'to pull forward'

induce 'to lead into'

conduct 'to lead together'


Another example is ped 'foot' (also from Latin).

pedal 'pertaining to the foot'

pedestrian 'one who use his/her feet for transportation'

biped[1] 'a creature with two feet '

pedometer 'an instrument for measuring distance traveled by foot '

pedigree 'foot of a crane'[2]

expedite 'to free the feet ' i.e. speed up progress

impede 'to have something in the way of one's foot ' i.e. to be slowed down


Task 1. Check the meaning of the following words. Identify the meaning of the common element.

a) receive, deceive, conceive

b) accept, incept,

c) consume, assume, presume


Part 2. Problems with morphemes

It would be nice if there were always a neat one-to-one correspondence between form and meaning, i.e. if each meaning always had its own individual form. Unfortunately, natural human language isn't like that. Now we'll take a look at some potentially tricky situations that can arise. As we consider these problems, the important thing to keep in mind is that a morpheme is a FORM + MEANING unit; both parts of the unit must be considered when we are trying to decide if we are dealing with one morpheme or two.

1. One form, two (or more) meanings.

Two different meanings can be expressed using the same arrangement of sounds. Since there are clearly two different and unrelated meanings, we would want to say that there are two different morphemes. For example we will learn the two morphemes,

in- 'not' in words like incapable and insufficient, and

in- 'into, within' , as in invade and include.

2. Two (or more) forms, one meaning.

When two different forms have the same meaning, they could be different morphemes -- or they might be a single morpheme. We'll take a look at both situations.

a. Two forms, one meaning = two morphemes

There are two situations in which two forms have the same meaning, but they are different morphemes.

(1) In the first case, the forms are usually rather different from one another. For example, consider

andr 'man,male' as in android, and

vir 'man,male' as in virile.

Both morphemes mean the same thing, but they are very different in form. They have completely different origins, and we want to think of them as different morphemes.

(2) In the second case, the forms may be the same or very similar, but they came into English from different sources. For example,

in- 'into, within' is a prefix English borrowed from Latin. We also have

in 'into, within', a native English preposition.

If we traced the histories of these two morphemes, we would find that they go back to a single morpheme which existed in the parent language of both Latin and English. Since they come ultimately from the same source, they are very similar in form. However, they came into English through very different historical pathways; one is part of the native vocabulary, the other is borrowed. For this reason, it is reasonable to think of them as separate morphemes. This situation is relatively rare.

b. Two (or more) forms, one meaning = one morpheme

Sometimes two forms with the same meaning may be alternate forms of the same morpheme. For example

a- and an- , different forms of a Greek morpheme meaning 'not, without'.

Another case is

pan- and pant- , which are different forms of a Greek morpheme meaning 'all,overall'.

Here the two forms are very similar, often differing in only one consonant or vowel. They typically result from a situation in which an original single form adapted its beginning or ending sounds to the sounds found in other morphemes it combined with. For example, the Greek 'not' morpheme is found in the form a- before roots beginning with consonants, and an- before roots beginning with vowels, just like the English words "a" and "an."

Task 2. Which of the following words have a negative prefix?

Inability, inborn, inbuilt, incantation, inaccessible, incentive, insane, incinerate, inoculate, incident, incline, incompatibility, inconceivable, incorporate, increase, incriminate, indebted, indecent, indeed, indefinite, indigenous, indigestion, indoor

Task 3. Give English words with morphemes a – / an – (“without”) and pan- /pant- (“all, overall”)


http://highered.mcgraw hill.com/sites/dl/free/0073513474/511786/Exercise_Ch2.pdf

Controversial cases of word analysis

Take the word: unionized. The more familiar meaning is "formed into a union". The other, less commonly known meaning comes from chemistry: "not converted into ions"; it's actually the word ionized with the un- prefix. This is an example of a homograph, as the words can have two pronunciations and different meanings altogether but are spelled the same.

The root words are different: in the first case, it's union, and in the second case it's ion. Here's the morpheme breakdown of both meanings of unionized:


union : root word

-ize : changes a noun into a verb (union -> unionize)

-ed : past tense (unionize -> unionized)


ion : root word

-ize : changes a noun into a verb (ion -> ionize)

un- : "not" (ionize -> unionize)

-ed : past tense (unionize -> unionized)

In the second case, notice that the order matters: the un- prefix is applied after -ize, as there isn't a word such as "un-ion".


Can you give your own examples of controversial word analysis?


Task 1. Match the terms and their definitions (see Photocopiable activities)

Exercise 1. Derivational Prefixes and Suffixes


1. Sort the prefixes in the words below into the following seven categories according to meaning:

a. Time

b. Number

c. Place

d. Degree

e. Privative

f. Negative

g. Size

Each category has two prefixes. After you have classified the prefixes, use a dictionary to identify whether the prefix is native English, Latin, or Greek in origin.






























Exercise 2: Minor Processes of Word Formation

1. Identify the process of word formation responsible for each of the following words. Try to determine the process before you consult a dictionary, though it may be necessary for you to do so.

a) curio

b) to laze

c) to network

d) to cohere

e) a sitcom

f) the muppets

g) a what-not

h) margarine

i) dystopia

j) serendipity

k) diesel

l) a ha-ha

m) to make up

n) to total

o) the hereafter

p) amphetamine

q) a construct

r) the chunnel

s) guestimate

t) canary

u) brain-gain

v) boojum

w) gaffe-slack

x) psycho

y) walkie-talkie

z) bonfire

Exercise 3. Stress shift. Mind the stress when reading these words.

1. A convict's life was neither easy nor pleasant.

2. A rebel is a participant in a rebellion; or more generally, an individual who resists authority or control.

3. Can an Islamic state permit foreign hotel resorts?

4. Create, record and share the sounds you create anywhere to friends, family and the world with SoundCloud, the world's largest community of sound creators.

5. Five days had gone by since the events in Las Cruces, during which she had made her way slowly back to New York, taking advantage of all the means of transport available – plane, train, bus and automobile.

6. In order to work and live in the Netherlands, you will require appropriate work and residence permits.

7. Record Collector is the world's leading authority on rare and collectable records.

8. Refreshments will be served after the talk followed by observing if weather permits.

9. Reservations are recommended since there are a limited number of quota permits available for each entry point.

10. Tariq Lutfi admits, “I don't know about the future of women football in Pakistan , but I can see some progress which I hadn't seen before.”

11. The British Convict transportation registers 1787-1867 database has been compiled from the British Home Office (HO) records which are available on microfilm.

12. This comprehensive index of all convicts transported to Tasmania and those who were convicted (through the convict system) in the colony was created by indexing all original records we hold from the beginning of transportation in 1804 until 1853 when transportation ceased.

13. What were the reasons why the colonists rebelled against England?

14. Women's Football in Pakistan has progressed but there is still a long way to go.



Exercise 4. Use derivatives of the words in brackets to fill in the gaps.

1. The results were very strange! In fact, they were __________________ ! (BELIEVE)

2. He has an unfortunate _________________ to understand people’s feelings (ABLE)

3. Due to the clerk’s ______________________ we missed the train (STUBBORN)

4. What is the ______________________ of the Danube River (LONG)

5. The ___ of our agriculture is important if we want to produce more food (MECHANIC)

6. Drug ______________________ is a problem causing great concern (ADDICT)

7. I have been sworn to ______________________ so I can’t say a word (SECRET)

8. Pushing into a queue is considered to be extremely _________________ (POLITE)

9. The audience gave the violinist a round of ______________________ (APPLAUD)

10. He isn’t happy with his job because he feels he is _____________________ (PAY)

11. We have just been shown another example of _________________ killing (SENSE)

12. My ______________________ is the history of Elizabethan England (SPECIAL)

13. The police were told by their _____________ where to find the criminal (INFORM)

14. He received many medals for his acts of _______________ during the war (HERO)

15. For all of us, Marilyn Monroe was the ____________________of beauty (PERSON)

16. I can guarantee the ______________________ of our new product (RELY)

17. Everybody is worried about the _________________ of the rain forest (DESTROY)

18. Some MPs are calling for ______________________ without trial (DETAIN)

19. My grandfather was given a medal for ______________________ (BRAVE)

20. My father takes great ______________________ in his work (PROUD)

21. ______________________ is probably the most useful form of energy (ELECTRIC)

22. John turned up on the wrong day because of a _______________(UNDERSTAND)

23. The bank robbers were sentenced to twelve years of ________________ (PRISON)

24. Failure to apply in time may result in a ___________________ of benefits (LOSE)

25. Pat was accused of stealing some _________________ documents (CONFIDENT)





[1] According to legend, Plato defined man as 'a featherless biped.' Diogenes plucked a chicken and brought it to the academy saying, "Here is Plato's man."

[2] This came from Old French pied de grue. It was thought that the diagrams of one's lineage (family tree charts) looked like a crane's foot.

Date: 2014-12-22; view: 2985

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