The process of industrialization in Kazakhstan (1920-1934). The results of industrialization policy in Kazakhstan.
Industrialization – this is the name of the politic that was set up by the Bolsheviks when they came to power after the civil war victory. Apart from ideological goals, Stalin, who succeeded Lenin after his death, also wished to embark on a program of rapid heavy industrialization which required larger surpluses to be extracted from the agricultural sector in order to feed a growing industrial work force and to pay for imports of machinery. The state also hoped to export grain, a source of foreign currency needed to import technologies necessary for heavy industrialization. Kazakhstan was one of the main areas of industrialization to transform agrarian country into industrial power, to produce and set up the machinery equipment of all sectors of the economy. Most of factories and plants have actually been built in those days. Kazakhstan continued industrialization until the Second World War. Industrialization led to the urban growth, the formation of a working class, heavy industry became the predominant field of economy – that was the great achievement for the previous cattle-breeding people, 90 % of whom before the Revolution lived in a countryside; working class was few, as well as national technical cadres; communication and transport facility was poorly developed. Throughout the 1930s, industrialization was combined with a rapid expansion of education at schools and in higher education. In those days mass struggle illiteracy had begun. According to Lenin’s order of 1919 all citizens of Soviet Union between 16 to 50 had to undertake classes and be literate. It is one of most positive thing one can find in soviet history along with free medicine.
58) The Collectivization in Kazakhstan (1928-1940): the means of introduction and its consequences.
Collectivization in the Soviet Union was a policy pursued under Stalin between 1928 and 1940.The goal of this policy was to consolidate individual land and labor into collective farms. The sweeping collectivization often involved tremendous human and social costs while the issue of economic advantages of collective farms remains largely undecided. Despite the initial plans, collectivization, accompanied by the bad harvest of 1932–1933, did not live up to expectations. The CPSU blamed problems on kulaks (prosperous peasants), who were organizing resistance to collectivization.Between 1929 and 1932 there was a massive fall in agricultural production and famine in the countryside. Stalin blamed the well-to-do peasants, referred to as 'kulaks', who he said had sabotaged grain collection and resolved to eliminate them as a class. Collectivization could only be achieved if the settlement of the Kazakh nomads occurred simultaneously. More than 1.5 million Kazakhs died during the 1930s and nearly 80 percent of the herd was destroyed between 1928 and 1932. The traditional stock-raising economy of the Kazakh society was exposed to destruction with the collectivization campaign, that led to the expropriation of a large amount of cattle, which was the basic food source. By the 1933 in Kazakhstan there were about 4,5 mln heads of cattle instead of 40,5 mln at the eve of collectivization.
59) The policy of Soviet government in the field of culture in 1920-1930ss years.
Academy of Sciences of the USSR made search of minerals and raw materials: Akadeniks Kurmakov, Gubkin studied and found deposits of many natural recourses, as Uralo-Embenskiy oil area, deposits of copper in Dzheskazgane. Throughout the 1930s, industrialization was combined with a rapid expansion of education at schools and in higher education.The important part of socialist transformation in Kazakhstan was the creation of new culture and the system of education. Throughout the 1930s, industrialization was combined with a rapid expansion of education at schools and in higher education. In those days mass struggle illiteracy had begun. It is one of most positive thing one can find in soviet history along with free medicine. Cultural revolution in Kazakhstan was happening in difficult times along with so called sovietisation.
In that policy we can find advantages and disadvantages. Advantages: successful program of liquidation of illiteracy; increasing of number of schools; qualitative training of teachers; opening of first national Kazakh theatre (1926), first music theater in1934), first artistic films studio (1934). Moreover in 1928 Abai Kazakh pedagogical institute was inaugurated. It is first higher educational institution in Kazakhstan. Then in 1931 Medical institute, in 1934 KazNTU, KazGU were also inaugurated. In those years it was boost of educational institutions. Disadvantages: translation of Kazakh scripts to Russian language led to the disconnection between Kazakhs and their ancient culture. Also the violent deprivation of religion beliefs couldn’t be the plus to government in eyes of people.
60) The crimes of totalitarian regime in Kazakhstan: the mass repressions of 1920-1930ss years.
By the end of 20th suspiciousness and forcing became general. In 1928 The most part of Kazakh intelligentsia, the former figures of Alash Orda - Dulatov, Zhumabaev, Ajmauytov were subjected to repression. There was just hunting for blasting anti-Soviet elements. Criminal cases were fabricated. Purges in the party organizations became the routine practice.
The First congress of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan brought the final political death of the Alash Orda, which completed the campaign of vigilance that had began at the third plenum in November 1927. Shortly after the 1937 congress, mass arrested began; by the end of the year a whole generation of Kazakh intellectuals, historians, journalists, poets and writers were found guilty and executed for the crime of dedication to the Kazakh people. The purges resulted as the total and mutual suspiciousness was boost - every member of the Kazakh buro of that first Congress of KazTkrayKom was arrested and charged with the “defamation and repression of party members”. These arrest triggered hundred of additional arrests, including many members of the Central Committee and most secretaries of the oblast gorkoms and raikoms. With this group were killed the remaining old Kazakh Communists who had joined the party in 1920, such as Zhandosov, Rozybakiev, Asylbekov, Sadvokasov, Nurmakov, Ryskulov were dismissed from the posts. The most prominent of them, Turar Ryskulov, was arrested in Moscow and executed in February 1939.
61) The political party “Alash”, its program aims and activity. The creation of government “Alash Orda” (1917-1918).
In February 1917 Tsar was overthrown by bourgeoisie and workers. The Provisional government consisting of bourgeoisie and workers was established as result of February Revolution. The revolution means something which is completely new and has nothing to do with the past. So in this revolution the structure and administration of the state was changing. Now people were rule through different commissions and committees. The first commissioners of then Provisional government were Bokeihanov, Tynyshbaev, Shokai etc. In this period old system was struggling with new system. Everything was in huge mess. In this mess Central Asian intelligentsia organized themselves to establish “Alash” party ( an organizational registration of “Alash“ party tok place in July 1917 in Orynbor city ). The party had its program. The program was touching issues of 1) Russia has to be democratic Federation; 2) Kazakh autonomy has to be created within Russian Federation; 3) Equality of rights among citizens of Russian Federation; 4) secularism; 5) Judicial power ; 6) Law enforcement and military field; 7) taxes have to be per income; 8) status of workers; 9) Education and science; 10) Land. A. Bokeihanov was elected as first chairman of the Party. However Alash had no long life. It was smashed once Bolsheviks got power. Alash was seen as symbol of national bourgeoisie and nationalism. The dream of independence and regional/national identity came true only in 1991. “Alash Orda” government was created by members of the party Alash in Orenburg, 5-13 December 1917 (Obschekirgizskii Congress). The announcement of the new Kazakh government, to be chaired by Ali Khan Bukeikhanov (from the minority group) was delayed a month, while negotiations with the Turkestani autonomists proceeded. The new government, whether representing a united Kazakh community or only the steppe territory, would be declared as of that date. This would also give Bukeikhanov time to move from Orenburg and establish his administration in Semipalatinsk, which was designated the capital. Because of cossack indifference and Bolshevik weakness, the Alash Orda government was left more or less on its own to govern the Kazakh community. Bukeikhanov and his supporters used the months immediately following their organizing conference to create an administrative structure that could raise and disperse revenue; they tried with mixed success to form a Kazakh militia and in general struggled to keep the steppe economy afloat. The Alash Orda central executive body consisted of eight Kazakh members—one representative from each of the six oblasts and the Inner Side, plus A. Bukeikhanov as chairman—and fifteen deputies of non-Kazakh origin. By late February 1918 the Alash Orda was the effective responsible authority for the Kazakh populations of Semipalatinsk, Uralsk, Akmolinsk, and Turgai. An active Alash Orda organization also existed in Semirech'e, chaired by Muhammad Tynyshpaev. Alash Orda was eliminated by Bolshevik Military Revolutionary Committee on 5 March 1920.