The participation of Kazakhstan people in the front battles of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945).
The Kazakh soldiers participated in the war as a liberator of Europe from the plague of fascism. 497 persons were awarded for the feats in the Great Patriotic War the ranks of the “Hero of the Soviet Union” (including 97 ethnic Kazakhs - the 5th place among all the Soviets)). Among them M.Mametova and A.Moldagulova, the only two heroine girls from the Soviet East and many others. 110 people were awarded the Order of Glory of three degrees. 410,000 Kazakh people perished on the war-field of the Germany-Italy-Japan war. Every fourth of the republic’ citizen, or 1 196 164 Kazakhstani was drafted to the Red Army. In Kazakhstan since the very beginning of the war 7 shooting brigades, about 50 separate regiments, 12 shooting and 4 cavalry divisions were formed. Other Kazakhstan divisions, brigades and regiments entered into the Soviet Army in 1942. Among this number three cavalry divisions and two shooting brigades were generated as the Kazakh national ones. More than 42 thousand young men from Kazakhstan graduated at Soviet military institutions in 1941-1945 and 16 thousand officers were admitted to the 27 republican military institutions. The Soviet Army, overcame huge difficulties and mobilized to defeat Nazi forces near Moscow. The immortal feat of Glorified 316th shooting division formed in Kazakhstan under the command of the major general I.V.Panfilov, that on November, 16th, 1941 nearby Dubosekovo crushed 18 fighting fascist vehicles and prevented seizure of Moscow, was known to all the world. The politruk V.G.Klochkov said the words which were known at all the front: «Russia is great, and there is no place to recede, — Moscow is behind us». Within a month, conducting endless fights on approaches to Moscow with Nazi forces surpassing them in four time, Panfilov division destroyed 2nd tank, 29th motorised, 11th and 110th infantry divisions of Hitler army.
63) The feats of labour of Kazakhstan people during the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945).
The republic reserved the leading positions in copper production (35 %), lead (85 %) and simultaneously constructed on the basis of the explored deposits the enterprises for extraction, enrichment and melt of metals —such as East Kounradsky Molibden, Dzhezdinsky manganous, Akchatausky molibden-and-tungsten, Tekelijsky polymetallic industrial complexes, etc. Due to it Kazakhstan began to give all state 60 % of allied extraction of molybdenum and 79 % of polymetallic ores. The metal working and mechanical engineering share in gross output of the industry of Kazakhstan grow from 16 % in 1940 to 35 % in 1945. These results were reached by the big pressure. But the war excluded in general or sharply limited the possibilities and methods of the decision making and people were struggling for the sake of the war time requirements. Working out the development of the strategic concept of their invasion, the German militaries counted that its success would depend on how quickly they could destroy the food potential of the Soviet Union. But Kazakhstan in 1941-1943 increased the meat supplies on 66.5 %, milk - on 18.7 %, a wool – on 38.1 % in terms of three pre-war years. Rationing system for bread and foodstuff was implemented in the country. Joint efforts of the state and people solved the food problem - necessary minimum was provided.
64) The cultivation of the “Virgin Lands” in Kazakhstan in 1950-1960ss years: the projects and results.
There was a task of the further development of the national economy after the end of the Great Patriotic war in Kazakhstan. General Secretary of CPSU N. Khrushchev’s decision in late 1953 to create a new breadbasket out of allegedly underutilized lands of southern Siberia and Kazakhstan affected the Kazakhs more than any other Soviet policy decision, with the possible exception of collectivization. The Kazakh economy was again forced to adapt. Large grain sovkhozy were built in Kazakhstan, where the Communist party was headed by L. Brezhnev, soon the General Secretary of CPSU. September (1953) Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU discussed and adopted program of measures of the further development of agriculture. The big place in realization of a course of the CPSU of agriculture development program was given to Kazakhstan. Here there were enormous land resources which were necessary for using rationally; the basic part of a fertile virgin soil was in Kazakhstan in marginal lands. Besides, there were no human resources for acquisition of virgin economy. Attraction of people from other areas of the country became the main source for the fulfillment of the Virgin Land Policy program. Above 640 000 persons, among them: 50 000 builders, about 3000 medical workers, almost 1500 teachers and others professionals arrived in total to the republic at the first stage of mass development of a virgin soil. Thanks to mass labour heroism of the Soviet people in the big areas of the new soils ploughed in 1954-1956 allowed to expand sharply 18 million hectares of virgin lands or 60,6 % to the general under crops, it was essential to increase the delivery of bread to the state. In 1956 Kazakhstan had over the first billion poods of grain. During 1956-1968 in republic the areas under the crops increased in Kazakhstan in to 28,6 million hectares. Manufacture of commercial crops – a sugar beet, sunflower, tobacco and forage crops were extended in the republic as well. By the end of 50th years the material base of agriculture in Kazakhstan was considerably strengthened – sovkhozs and collective farms received 169 thousand tractors, 98 thousand combines, 73 thousand tracks and a considerable quantity of other agricultural machinery. Such grandiose project as the development of several millions hectares of the virgin lands in Kazakhstan had the hugest value: either positive, either so and negative. It is possible to mark some positive results: The inflow of a labor sources, vehicles, the machinery equipment in territory of Kazakhstan; Strengthening of material base of agriculture industries; High rates of development of an agricultural production and population growth; The negative ones: Infringement of ecological balance, aeration fertile soils; Reduction of pastures; A damage to animal husbandry industries (low rate of meat and diary production). It is possible to learn a lesson from any example from the history. The development of virgin lands will serve as an instructive lesson for the future generations of the necessity to watch the nature of the Native land besides the grandiose economic outputs and profits. An output of the metals like copper, zinc and lead from 30% to 70% led to Kazakhstan became a unique agricultural and industrial region. Unfortunately, all that large national economic potential turned out to be ineffective administration system, not leading to an improvement of the Kazakh people’s prosperity.The economic policies of the Khrushchev-Brezhnev era led to greater integration of the Kazakh economy and the Kazakh party into the Soviet administration. Khrushchev’s Virgin Lands policy, combined with Brezhnev’s commitment to modernizing agricultural practices, greatly sped up the command and administrative system that Stalin had introduced.
65) The Alash intellectuals – the Kazakh secular elite at the beginning of the XX century.
In 1905, Bokeikhanov's political activism began when he joined the Constitutional Democratic party. He was elected to the First Duma as a member of that party in 1906, and signed the Vyborg Manifesto to protest the dissolution of the Duma by the tsar. As a result of this action, he was arrested and prohibited from living in the Steppe Oblasts. During his exile, he relocated to Samara.Bokeikhanov became deeply involved with the Alash Orda - a political movement which sought to create an authonomous Kazakhstan. After the October revolution, he was elected in 1917 as president of the Alash Orda government of Alash Autonomy. The same year he was a member of the Turkestan Committee and Commissar of the Provisional Government in Torghai Oblast.In 1920, after the establishment of Soviet hegemony, Bokeikhanov joined the Bolshevik party and returned to scientific life. His earlier political activities caused the authorities to view him with suspicion, leading to arrests in 1926 and 1928. In 1930, the authorities banished him to Moscow, where he was arrested a final time in 1937 and executed. . In October 1905 he joined other Kazakhs in the city of Ural and helped create the Kazakh branch of the Constitutional Democrat Party, beginning his active political career. In 1909 he published Qyryq mysal (Forty Proverbs), which was influenced by Ivan Krylov's fables but written in a manner that seemed best suited for a Kazakh reader and corresponded to Kazakh culture and nomadic sensibilities. His collection of translations was followed in 1911 by an original collection of poetry entitled Masa (Mosquito). Whereas Qyryq mysal was pedagogic in nature, Masa was much more political and incendiary. In 1913 Baitursynov became the editor of the newspaper Kazak, which became the most successful prerevolutionary Kazakh periodical. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, he became a leader of the Kazakh political party Alash Orda (The Horde of Alash), which fought for an independent Kazakh state. In 1920 the Bolsheviks consolidated power in Central Asia, and Baitursynov joined them. Throughout the 1920s he was active in educational reforms and helped establish the first Kazakh university. In 1937 he was arrested for harboring bourgeois nationalist sentiments and executed during the Stalinist purges. the Kazakh outstanding enlightener, public figure, poet, writer, journalism master, one of the leaders of the Alashorda government and national-liberation movement of Kazakhstan. He was born in Kostanay oblast. He finished an elementary school in the village and in 1897 entered the Russian-Kazakh Pedagogical College, from which he graduated in 1902, becoming a rural teacher. In 1904 in Karkaraly he met with Akhmet Baitursynov and Alikhan Bokeikhanov. Under the influence of these two leaders of the national movement he fully understood Russian empire's colonial policy. In 1907 he went to St.Petersburg to the All-Russian Cadets Congress as a delegate from the Kazakh party of constitutional democrats. By the czar?s decree dated July 3, 1907 the Kazakhs were denied their rights to participate in the Russian State Duma. In his article ?The Law of July 3 and the Kazakhs? M.Dulatov criticized this decision. The political creed of M.Dulatov was defined, when he released his first poetic album ?Oyan, Kazakh!? (?Wake up, Kazakh!?) under pseudonym Argyn. The book was immediately confiscated, but he managed to republish it in 1911 and returned to Torgay. In 1910 Mirzhakyp published his debut story ?Bakytsyz Zhamal? (?Unhappy Zhamal?) ? the story of the Kazakh woman became the first work of prose in the modern Kazakh literature. In 1911 he was arrested in Semipalatinsk. After the release, M.Dulatov published his works in ?Aikap? journal and ?The Kazakh? newspaper, which was founded by A.Baitursynov. In his articles Mirzhakyp criticized the social-economic and political situation of the Kazakh people under the oppression of the czar?s regime. In 1916 Mirzhakyp became a founder of the first famine relief fund. In 1917 M.Dulatov became one of the promoters of the First All-Kyrgyz Congress in Orenburg, where the first Kazakh political party ?Alash? was formed. In December, 1917 after the October Revolution the Second All-Kyrgyz Congress was held in Orenburg. In February, 1920 Alashorda autonomy was abolished and its leaders were amnestied. M.Dulatov returned to the publishing and educational activity and lived in Orenburg in 1922-1928. In 1928 Mirzhakyp came out against repeal of the Arabic alphabet, counting that the linguistic reform would sever ties of the nation with the writing history. On December 29, 1928 he was arrested on charges of the Kazakh nationalism. M.Dulatov was shot on October 5, 1935.