The success of 1917 October revolution and the establishment of Soviet government in Kazakhstan.
The period of competition for authority ended in October 24, 1917 in Petrograd, when Bolsheviks routed the ministers of the Provisional Government in the events known as the October Revolution, and placed power in the hands of the soviets, or "workers' councils," which they largely controlled. In the morning of October 25 (7 November), the Congress of the Soviets and Military Revolutionary Committee announced that the Provisional government was deposed.
The transition of full power to the Soviets in Kazakhstan because of - the social and economic constraints, cultural backwardness, the small number of worker class and the complexity of interethnic relations stretched from late 1917 until the spring of 1918.(1 Nov., 1917 in Tashkent, December 1917 - Bukey Horde, January 1918 - Turgay oblast). However, in the large cities it was very forceful process, done by armed action. It took time until the Civil War. Kazakh elite found it difficult to support new Bolshevik regime and chose instead to create the Alash Orda autonomous government. This government, which attempted to govern the steppe from December 1917 through mid-1919, fought with the various White forces (that promised to assist Alash Government to form their militia) to defeat Bolshevik rule.
The leaders of Alash Government were deprived by the Directorate, that was replaced by Siberian Government. Instead of that “Kirgiz Affairs Committee” was formed led by A.Bukheykhabov. That’s why when in March, 1919 the VY Congress of VKP(b) proclaimed the course for the national authonomy of the former Tsarist backyards, it helped Alash leaders and Bolsheviks to form KazRevKom.
53) Kazakhstan during the Civil war in 1918-1920 years.
In late July cossacks and Alash Orda broke the Bolsheviks from the North Semirechye. In spring 1919, Kolchak army moved on, cutting off Turkestan. However, this success was temporary. In the rear of the forthcoming White Army, the peasant riots broke out. Already in April the Red Army counter attacked in the South Urals, took the Ufa in June, in August 19 - Kostanai. The situation in western Kazakhstan was more difficult. Despite the onset of the South Army, the Bolsheviks defeated the Cossacks of the Urals. In October 30, after fierce fighting Kolchak army left Petropavlovsk. The main forces began to retreat to the east of Omsk, and part of the troops led by Ataman Dutov - to the south. The White part was all broken and civil war on the territory of Kazakhstan was completed.
54. The history of Kazakh “Soviet nationhood” (as an autonous and Soviet Socialist republic).
Resolution of this question was the central theme at the all-Kirgiz congress held in Orenburg July 21-28,1917. At this meeting both Mir Yakub Dulatov and Ahmed Baitursunov called for the creation of an independent and autonomous Kazakh state. Ali Khan Bukeikhanov spoke in favor of what became the majority position for Kazakh national territorial autonomy in a democratic, federative, and parliamentary Russian republic. The congress organized itself as a Kazakh national party. The meeting passed a series of resolutions that were to serve as the party program. They advocated their commitment to the ideals of the Provisional Government, which were that Kirgizia should be an autonomous republic within a Russian federative parliamentary republic. These items were discussed at the second congress that met in Orenburg December 5-13, 1917. The congress delegates shared a concern that the absence of government was permitting a daily rise in anarchy in the cities and towns of the steppe, thereby threatening the safety of the Kazakh-Kirgiz. They believed that this could only be remedied by the creation of a government that had moral authority and popular support. They maintained that only a Kazakh-dominated government would gain this mass approval and unanimously resolved to create a Kazakh-Kirgiz autonomous region, to be called Alash, which would own all land, water, and underground mineral rights in the oblast. The executive body of this oblast was to be a provisional peoples' soviet, to be called Alash Orda, which was to consist of 25 members, 10 of whom would be Russian or other non-Kazakh nationalities. This membership would ensure minority rights within the oblast, including cultural autonomy and legal extraterritoriality. The Alash Orda was empowered to form a militia to collect taxes, contract loans, conduct negotiations with neighboring autonomous groups, draft a constitution, and supervise local elections of representatives to attend the constituent assembly. By late February 1918 the Alash Orda was the effective responsible authority for the Kazakh populations of Semipalatinsk, Uralsk, Akmolinsk, and Turgai. An active Alash Orda organization also existed in Semirech'e, chaired by Muhammad Tynyshpaev. Kazakh ASSR existed from April 1925 to December 1936. In December 1936 received the status of a Union Republic, and was removed from the RSFSR. In February 1925 Orenburg region was removed from the Kirgiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and transferred to the RSFSR, and the capital was moved to the Kyzyl-Orda, and then to Alma-Ata (1927).
55) The policy of ‘military communism’ in Kazakhstan (1918-1920).
The policy of military communism was a policy of nationalization of all the industries virtually, centralization of administration in the maximum, surplus-appropriation system, provision of the card system, compulsory labor conscription. The policy included: override of market and financial relations, substitution of economic stimulus to non-economic directive, distribution of hard state control in all areas.The main idea was to set the “dictatorship of proletariat”.Communist party just accepted the Marxist scientific theory as a sort of religion – believing that the life could be changed through the human’s will.Military communism was adopted by the Bolsheviks with the aim of keeping towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food. War communism included the following policies:
1. All industry was nationalized and strict centralized management was introduced.
2. State monopoly on foreign trade was introduced.
3. Discipline for workers was strict, and strikers could be shot.
4. Obligatory labor duty was imposed onto "non-working classes".
5. Prodrazvyorstka – requisition of agricultural surpluses from peasants in excess of absolute minimum for centralized distribution among the remaining population.
6. Food and most commodities were rationed and distributed in a centralized way.
7. Private enterprise became illegal.
8. Military-like control of railroads was introduced.
The number of starving men in Kazakhstan reached 1,508,000 people by November 1920. 1,750,000 people or 42% of all Kazakh population was the victims of the famine and its painful consequences. 1,010,000 of Kazakhs abandoned the boundaries of their historic motherland.
56) The NEP in Kazakhstan (1921-1925) and its nature. The results of NEP policy in Kazakhstan.
New Economic Policy was an economic policy proposed by V. Lenin to prevent the Russian economy from collapsing. Allowing some private ventures, while the state continued to control banks, foreign trade, and large industries. It was officially decided in the course of the 10th Congress of the All-Russian Communist Party by decree on March 21, 1921, "On the Replacement of Prodrazvyorstka by Prodnalog". Agricultural production increased greatly. Instead of the government taking all agricultural surpluses with no compensation, the farmers now had the option to sell their surplus yields, and therefore had an incentive to produce more grain. Though NEP was primarily an agricultural policy, it succeeded in creating an economic recovery after the devastating effects of the First World War, the Russian Revolution and the Russian civil war. By 1928, agricultural and industrial production had been restored to the 1913 (pre-WWI) level. But some people within the party saw the NEP as a betrayal of communist principles, so they wanted a fully planned economy instead. The main result of NEP: the agriculture and economy was restored and the stable financial system was established.