The national-liberating revolt of 1916 year (the causes, peculiarities, main centers).
In 1916 Tsar signs a decree which required people of Turkistan and Steppe to be recruited for war infrastructure works such as digging trenches. It was estimated that overall 400 000 people have to recruited. Definitely such step was reason of growing dissatisfaction of local towards Tsarist rule. Dissatisfaction was expressed through different uprisings such as in Torgai (A. Imanov, A. Jangeldin), Oral (S. Mendeshev), Mangistau (Aitiev), Jetisu (Tokash Bokin, T. Ryskulov). The uprising covered almost all Kazakh territory. The increase of uprisings shows us that Tsarist rule was weakening and shaking. The storm was coming.
50) The February bourgeois-democratic revolution of 1917 in Russia and its influence on Kazakhstan.
In February 1917 Tsar was overthrown by bourgeoisie and workers. The Provisional government consisting of bourgeoisie and workers was established as result of February Revolution. The party had its program. The program was touching issues of 1) Russia has to be democratic Federation; 2) Kazakh autonomy has to be created within Russian Federation; 3) Equality of rights among citizens of Russian Federation; 4) secularism; 5) Judicial power ; 6) Law enforcement and military field; 7) taxes have to be per income; 8) status of workers; 9) Education and science; 10) Land. A. Bokeihanov was elected as first chairman of the Party. However Alash had no long life. It was smashed once Bolsheviks got power. Alash was seen as symbol of national bourgeoisie and nationalism. The dream of independence and regional/national identity came true only in 1991.
News of the February Revolution in 1917 was greeted enthusiastically by all sectors of society. The event was seen as marking the beginning of a new era, one in which the Kazakh grievances would receive a fair hearing and former wrongs would be righted. A generation of young Kazakh intellectuals quickly took the foreground. Most had already been active in the new Kazakh youth groups, including Birlik (Unity), formed in Omsk in 1915, and Erkin Dala (The Free Steppe), formed in Orenburg in 1916. These groups were discussion circles that helped increase the political awareness and unity of the educated Kazakh youth. Almost immediately after the revolution these young intellectuals took advantage of their new opportunities to form some twenty new youth societies, including Igylikti Is (Good Deeds) in Orenburg and Umyt (Hope) and Jas Qazaq (Young Kazakh) in Uralsk.
51) ‘Alash Orda’ political party, its program aims and activity.
The executive body of this oblast was to be a provisional peoples' soviet, to be called Alash Orda, which was to consist of 25 members, 10 of whom would be Russian or other non-Kazakh nationalities. This membership would ensure minority rights within the oblast, including cultural autonomy and legal extraterritoriality. The Alash Orda was empowered to form a militia to collect taxes, contract loans, conduct negotiations with neighboring autonomous groups, draft a constitution, and supervise local elections of representatives to attend the constituent assembly.
All assembled agreed that the Kazakh autonomous oblast should be composed of the former steppe territory (the oblasts of Uralsk, Turgai, Akmolinsk, and Semipalatinsk), the Kazakh districts of Transcaspia, and the Kazakh-dominated regions of Turkestan—the oblasts of Syr Darya and Semirech'e and Kirgiz regions of the Fergana, Samarkand, and Amu Darya oblasts.
The announcement of the new Kazakh government, to be chaired by Ali Khan Bukeikhanov (from the minority group) was delayed a month, while negotiations with the Turkestani autonomists proceeded.