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Science in the 19 century. CH.CH. Valikhanov.

In the middle of the XIX century. prominent role in the cultural life of Russia and Kazakhstan began to play an emerging national intellectuals, educated in Russian universities. One of the outstanding representatives of the national intelligentsia is Sh Ualikhanov. Shokan (Mohammed Hanafi) was born in November 1835 in the town Kuntimes, in the territory of modern Sarykol area Kostanai region, in the family elder Sultan Aman-Karagai District Major Order Shingiza UALIEVA. In 1847 the 12-year-old Shokan was determined to study in the Omsk Cadet Corps, which was considered then the best schools in Siberia, where the perfectly mastered the Russian language, has an extensive knowledge. At the end of the Cadet Corps in 1853 he was appointed to serve at the governor-general of Western Siberia G. Gasfort. The formation of attitudes and opinions Shokan Ualikhanov had a profound impact specific conditions predreformennoy Russia, which stood on the eve of the abolition of serfdom. In 1854-1857 gg. Sh Ualikhanov takes an active part in expeditions to the South Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. In 1855, Travel in Central Kazakhstan, su, and Tarbagatai, exploring the ruins of ancient towns, petroglyphs, stone sculptures, writes stories, songs and tales of the Kazakh people. In 1856-1857. Ualikhanov involved in military and scientific expeditions to Kyrgyzstan, where the first recorded poem "Manas". A further focus of scientific activity Sh.Ua-Likhanova facilitated by the familiarity with the Semenov-Tien-Shansky, expressing admiration for the scientist-Kazakhs. In 1857 on the recommendation of Semenov-Tian-Shansky C. Ualikhanov was elected a member of the Russian Geographical Society. In the spring of 1864 S. Ualikhanov took part in marches on Tashkent led by General Chernyaeva, but soon, dissatisfied with his actions, he left a detachment, and returned to the Altyn-Emel National Park in the village of Sultan Tezek where he married his sister Aysare.

 

47) The epoch of Enlightenment in Kazakhstan. Abai Kunanbaev (1845-1904). the great figure of Kazakh Enlightenment.

 

Education in Kazakh land combined two types: religious in madrasas and civil in Russian schools. As for education and knowledge acquisiting it is worthy to mention Jadidism.

In the 1860s Kazakh had become a literary language based on spoken Kazakh with Arabic and Tatar influences.

Alash published 22 numbers between November 26.1916 and May 25.1917.

Aikap first appeared in 1911 and ceased publication in 1915, issuing 88 numbers in all.

Kazah printed it first issue in 1913 and its last in 1918.

In this period it was flourishing moment for Kazakh intelligentsia. We had great and bright minds such as ALtynsarin, Abai, Baitursynov, Dulatov, Jumabaev, Ualikhanov etc.

Abai (Ibrahim) Kunanbayev (29 July (10 August) 1845, Semipalatinsk region, Kazakhstan - June 23 (July 6), 1904) - Kazakh poet, writer, social activist, composer and founder of modern Kazakh written literature, and its first classic , reformer of culture in the spirit of rapprochement with the Russian and European culture on the basis of enlightened liberal Islam. Abai Kunanbaev is without question the best known of the group. Abai was the son of Kunanbai, the leader of the Tobikty tribal confederation of the Middle Horde. After graduation from the district school in Karkaralinsk and primary education in a local Quran school, Abai began to criticize the traditional Kazakh way of life in the lyric poems he composed, these poems became widely recited in the steppe. Although he published several volumes of poetry, Abais ideas are probably most clearly expressed in a book of essays called Edifications most of these essays were written during the 1890s when the Russians were beginning to seize large amounts of land and thousands of European settlers were moving into the steppe. Abai could offer no real solutions for the Kazakhs' economic woes, but he encouraged them to accept the reality of the situation and to gain the technical skills necessary to adjust, to become farmers and cattlemen rather than wandering livestock breeders.



 

 

48) The impact of Russian revolution of 1905 1907 on Kazakhstan.

During these decades straddling the turn of the century, the Kazakhs increasingly thought and acted as a homogeneous community. This was partly because of the Russian policy of secular education, which led to the development of a self-aware Kazakh elite. Of course, there were divisions within the Kazakh community between the secular nationalists and those Kazakhs who maintained a strongly Islamic worldview, but most Kazakhs felt that such rifts should be bridged when presented to the outside world, particularly before Russian audiences in St. Petersburg, where the Kazakhs argued their case in the newly created State Duma.

Creation of the State Duma gave the Kazakhs additional occasions to voice their indignation, both in election meetings and when they petitioned the new representatives.

 


Date: 2014-12-22; view: 1593


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