Turgeshes and Kharlukhs in the history of Kazakhstan (location, economy, social organization, political history).
Tyrgesh khanate was formed having Talas and Suyab as the capital cities. At the beginning of VII century Kagan Ushlik brings its stake in Suyab and divide the whole territory of Kaganate in 20 areas - «tutuk». In each area, there were up to 7 thousand farms. Large rate Kagan was in Suyab and small - in the city Kungute valleys of the Ili River. Ushlik conclude an alliance with China and Soghd and twice defeated Arabs under Paikend and Bukhara. Only factions between turgeshes and Soghdies allowed the Arabs to retreat and avoid a complete rout. However, this success was brief. In 708, in Turgeshs Khanate internecine war had started, which enabled the Arabs to resume the offensive in the Central Asia and in 711 captured Samarkand. In 713 the Arabs captured the city of Khujand, Ferghana, and tried to get hold of Tashkent, and in 715 was to penetrate into East Turkestan. However, Arabic expansion was again halted turgeshes that in the same 715y. cleared from the occupants Ferghana, and in 717 was kagan Suluk managed to regain its former strength Kaganate. In 724 of turgeshi supported a rebellion in Soghd and started a guerrilla war against the Arabs. However, in 737 peace with China had been violated, and Suluk had to wage war on two fronts. In 738 of the leader Sarah-turgeshey Baga-Tarkhan killed Suluk and tried to seize power. Using intestine war between turgeshes, the Arabs managed to complete the conquest of Soghd, crush resistance of Samarkand, Tashkent and Otrar and 738 of the firm to set its border with turgeshes. Resumed the Chinese offensive, which in 748 destroyed Suyab. Two army: Arabic and Chinese, met at 751 in a river Talas. Battle lasted five days and ended with the victory of the Arabs. The Chinese were expelled from Zhetysu, but the Arabs were forced to retreat because of the frequent rebellions in conquered Soghd. In 759 of the power in Zhetysu turned to other Turkic tribe - Karluks.
KARLUK KHANATE – was established in 766 over all the Turgesh lands except western Kasakhstan, whose tribesmen allied themselves with the Oguz state (in what is now Turkmenistan). At its origin the Karluk state went from Kashgaria to the middle course of the Syr Darya. It continued to expand, so that by the tenth century it also encompassed the area between lakes Issyk-Kul and Balkhash as well as the Ili, Chu and Talas river valleys. Under the Karluks the first large cities were built in the steppe, including Taraz, Isfijab (renamed Sairam), and Farab (renamed Otrar). In 940 the Karluks lost a dynastic struggle to the Karakhanid family, who ruled the steppe for another two hundred years.
Date: 2014-12-22; view: 667