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alphabetical grouping

The sound is taken into consideration. Outcome is almost null with few exceptions of etymological value. For instance, words beginning with w are mostly native. Many words beginning with ph [f] and ps [s] are Greek (philology, psychology). Those beginning with sk [sk] are of Scandinavian origin (sky, skate, ski) and not palatalized, but the ones with sh [⌠] are native and palatalized (shirt);

rhyming grouping

The sound is taken into consideration but the other way round (game, fame);

word length

The number of letters is taken into consideration. Important for lexicostatistics, communication engineering. The number of letters and esp. syllables correlates to the word frequency, the number of meanings and stylistic characteristics of the lexical item.

word frequency

This approach is very important for lexicography and language teaching. The most frequent words are polysemantic and stylistically neutral.


Motivation is the relationship between the morphemic or phonemic composition and structural pattern of the word on the one hand, and its meaning on the other hand.

3 types of motivation: phonetical (hiss, bang, buzz)

morphological (reader. overgrow, eye-wash - self explaining words);

semantic (head of army, head of procession, head of cabbage).

Non-motivated words (to earn).


Distributional analysis, method of oppositions, substitution, ICís analysis, transformational analysis, componential analysis, semasiological analysis (reveals word meaning), onomasiological analysis of lexico-semantic groups (reveals peculiarities of the use of words in each language as well as the frequency value of words with different semantic components), onomasiological comparative (is intended to reveal the words which are used to denote one the same object).


Date: 2015-02-03; view: 1526

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