Stylistic Inversion - word order is a crucial syntactical problem in many languages. Stylistic inversion aims at attaching logical stress or additional emotional colouring to the surface of the utterance. Stylistic inversion is used to single out some parts of the sentence and sometimes to heighten the emotional tension. The patterns of stylistic inversion: l. Traditional Inversion: object + subject + predicate e.g. Talent he has, capital he has not. 2.Post-position of the attribute (after the word it modifies). This model is often used when there is more than one attribute, e.g. Once upon a midnight dreary... 3.Predicate (гл. чл предл) + subject e.g. A good generous prayer it was. 4. The adverbial modifier comes at the beginning of the sentence e.g. Eagerly I wished the morrow. 5.Both modifier and predicate stand before the subject e.g. In went Mr.Pickwick
Detached construction The detached part being torn from its referent assumes a greater degree of significance and is given prominence by intonation. It always ranks secondary from the semantic point of view although structurally it possesses all the features of a primary member.
Detached construction is akin to inversion but it produces a much stronger effect. The most noticeable cases are those in which an attribute or an adverbial modifier is placed not in immediate proximity to its referent, but in some other position.
Parallel Construction - The necessary conditions in parallel construction is identical or similar syntactical structures in 2 or more sentences or parts of a sentence in close succession. e.g. There were real silver spoons to stir the tea with and real china cups to drink it out of, and plates of the same to hold the cakes and toast in. Parallel constructions are often backed up by repetition of words and conjunctions and prepositions. It is called Polysyndeton. It may be partial (repetition of some parts of successive sentences) or complete (balance) e.g. the seeds you sow - another reaps. Parallel constructions are characterised by rhythm and often used in poetry. The necessary condition in parallel construction is identical or similar, syntactical structure in two or more sentences or parts of sentence. The necessary condition in parallel constructions is identical or similar, syntactical structure in two or more sentences or parts of sentence in close succession.
Chiasmus. It is a reversed parallel construction. It is based on the repetition of a syntactical pattern, but it has a cross order of words and phrases. It brings in some new shade of meaning or additional emphasis.
e.g. УYou forget what you want to remember, and you remember what you want to forget." In chiasmus the central part of the sentence Ц the predicate (сказуемое) remains the hinge (петл€) around which occur syntactical changes Ц the subject of the first sentence becomes the object of the second and vice versa.
Repetition - is an expressive means of language used when the speaker is under stress of a strong emotion. As a stylistic device is a direct successor of repetition as an expressive language means, which serves to emphasize certain statements of the speaker, and so possesses considerable emotive force. Repetition is classified according, to compositional patterns:
l. Anaphora - the repeated word or phrase which comes at the beginning of two or more sentences. 2. Epiphora - repeated word is placed at the end of the sentences. 3.Framing - repetition is arranged in the form of a frame. 4.Linking repetition - when the last word or phrase of one part of an utterance is repeated at the beginning of the next part, thus linking the 2 parts together. e.g. A smile would come into Mr. Pickwick's face the smile extended into a laugh, the laugh into the roar and the roar became general. 5.Chain repetition. The whole phrase is repeated, forming a chain, (function of repetition is to intensify the utterance) 6. anadiplosis or catch repetition Ц the repetition of the same unit (word or phrase) at the end of the preceding and at the beginning of the sentence (Еa, a Е); The combination of several catch repetitions produces a chain repetition. Types of lexical repetitions: 1)pleonasm - the use of more words in the sentence then necessary to express the meaning, 2)tautology - the repetition of the same word/phrase or the same idea or statement in other words often in different grammatical forms.
(antithesis) is used to characterize a thing or phenomenon from a specific point of view but not to find points of resemblance or association but to find points of sharp contrast that is to said one object against the other. In order to characterize a thing or phenomenon from a specific point of view it may be necessary to find sharp contrast, that is to set the thing or phenomenon against the other. 1) the exact opposite 2) contrast or opposition 3) rhetoric the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, phrases, or words so as to produce an effect of balance, e.g. my words fly up, my thoughts remain below. Antithesis and logical opposition shouldnТt be confused. F.e. logical Ц a saint abroad and a devil at home. Better to rain in hell than serve in heaven. Antithesis is based on relative opposition which arises out of the context through the expansion of objectively contrasting pairs. F.e. Youth is lovely, age is lonely, youth is fairy, age is frosty. The function of antithesis Ц rhythm forming, connecting, disconnecting and comparative.
Enumeration- is a stylistic device by which separate things, objects, phenomena, properties, actions are named one by one, so that they produce a chain, the links of which being syntactically in the same position are forced to display some kind of semantic homogeneity (однородность), remote though they may seem.
Conventionally it may be called a sporadic (случайный) semantic field.
Heterogeneous enumeration (разнородна€) is a clash (стык) between terminological vocabulary and common neutral words. Dickens Ц Scrooge was his soul executor, his soul administrator, his souls assign (начальник), his soul residuary legatee (юр наследник), his soul friend and his soul moaner. The principle production of these tools appears to be soldiers, sailors, Jews, shrimps, offices and dockyard man.
Suspense - is a compositional device which consists in arranging the matter of communication in such a way that the less important descriptive subordinate parts arc amassed at the beginning of the sentence; the main idea being withheld till the end of the sentence. These sentences arc called periodic sentences. Their function is to create suspense and to keep the reader in a state of uncertainly and expectation. F.e. Mankind, says a Chinese manuscript, Е for the first seventy thousand years ate their meat row.
Climax (gradation) - is an arrangement of sentences which secures a gradual increase in significance, importance or emotional tension in the utterance. e.g. It was a lovely city, a beautiful city, a fair city, a veritable (истинный) jam of a city. This gradual increase in significance may be maintained in 3 ways: 1.Logically, based on the relative importance of the component parts 2.Emotionally, based on the relative emotional tension. 3. Quantitative (количеств), based on the volume of the corresponding concept. F.e. little by little, bit by bit, and day by day and year by year the baron got the worst of some disputed question. Climax is the means by which the author discloses his welled outlook, his evaluation of objective facts and phenomenon.