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CATALYSIS

Make a summary of the text.

One of the most powerful papers generated specific to nanotechnology in chemistry came from the Journal of the American Chemical Society in which it was discussed how a fine textured surface of the metal indium could be used as a means of extracting hydrogen from ammonia, followed by the ammonia being fed to a fuel cell. What made this discovery so fascinating is that the surface of the metal was comprised of literally millions of pyramids, each consisting of facets so small that they measured just five nanometers, or five billionths of a meter across. On these facets, ammonia molecules were able to settle into position much like pieces to a puzzle.

These particular surfaces are referred to as model catalysts which serve another purpose having the ability to catalyze chemical reactions for specific industries to include pharmaceutical and chemical ones. In looking at standard methods of creating this type of hydrogen economy it is important to take into account the existence of two huge obstacles. The first is the safe and affordable transport of hydrogen fuel and the second, cost efficiency and safety for storage. Because of this discovery for nanotechnology in chemistry, working with a dangerous fuel such as hydrogen many of the potential risks would be reduced, if not completely eliminated.

Because nanotechnology makes it possible for hydrogen to be bound with atmospheric nitrogen into the ammonia molecules, hydrogen fuel could be handled in much the same was as automobile gasoline. Although there would still need to be caution, significant risks would be gone. In addition, because of nanostructured catalysts being developed in this manner, 100% hydrogen could actually be extracted directly from beneath a car's hood whenever wanted when the fuel cell needed it. In this case, any nitrogen leftover would simply be released back into the atmosphere without causing any harm. In other words, the ammonia would be carbon free in nature, thereby making the catalyst of the fuel cell less likely to deactivate.

Hydrogen fuel has long been a serious concern for handling, storage, and transportation but thanks to catalysis associated with nanotechnology in chemistry once technology has been fully developed the change would be of tremendous value. Of course, this is just one example of how nanotechnology in chemistry is making things easier and better. Because the surface to volume ratio pertaining to chemical catalysis is so massive, the benefits are simple incredible. Along with the benefits connected with hydrogen fuel, other areas in which this discovery has proven helpful is for photocatalytic devices and catalytic converters.

 

Text C

 

Present a written translation of the text.

Nanotechnology has become a buzzword in advertising when it refers to cosmetics and skincare products. According to cosmetic consultants, nano can work wonders. Customers, however, are not easy believers. "I'm a loyal customer and I've been using loads of skin care products, but I think it's all just a bluff. Nanotechnology is just a con1; to attract and to fool customers into buying overpriced products. I personally cannot understand what nanos can do in a moisture lotion or a hand care cream," says Valery Britton.



Another customer Jenny Tannyson sounds rather skeptical too: "Most people are not very well aware of what nanotechnology means, but the word itself sounds impressive. Sales managers can sell more if they convince customers that cutting-edge technologies are applied to produce the product." Meanwhile, experts say that managers do have a point there Ч finely dispersed nanoemulsions, which consist of very small, nano-size droplets, are more effective because tiny droplets are very efficient in delivering vitamins. They are аblе to get deep into the skin and stimulate cells regeneration.

Scientists, however, are much more excited with the potential of applying nanotechnology in medicine which can save lives and significantly improve the quality of life for many patients. Like in cosmetics, nanotechnology has been successfully used for delivering drugs. Nanocrystalline drugs and polymeric capsules for drug delivery have already been clinically tested and are implemented in medical practice. Nanodrugs therapy implies lower risks and considerably fewer cases of side effects, because the smart drugs find their target quickly and treat it delicately without affecting other organs. Due to nano dimensions nanotechnology works from the molecular level, and as researchers think it can be applied for diagnosing, preventing and treating diseases using molecular tools.

Ambitious scientists set more and more challenging goals. They are talking about creating artificial tissues and organs, constructing nano-bio-robots- which could work inside the body like a DNA-based manipulator, and creating bio-engineered viruses and bacteria to fight viruses and bacteria that cause diseases. Some scientists come up with the idea of creating a bio-compatible nanocomputer that could control all the processes in the body and will enable doctors to discover the slightest abnormality.

 

Note

1con (short for confidence trick) Ц обман, злоупотребление доверием.

 

 

UNIT V

 


Date: 2015-01-29; view: 938


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