1 Greenpeace is going to release a(n) …….. on water pollution.
a) edition b) issue c) publicity d) report
2 Zoologists work hard to …….. endangered species.
a) protect b) shelter c) cover d) support
3 The tropical …….. of Africa need to be protected from destruction.
a) regions b) states c) places d) sites
4 To improve the …….. of the water, use a water purification tablet.
a) standard b) amount c) quantity d) quality
5 Acid rain has caused a lot of …….. to Europe’s trees.
a) wreck b) ruin c) damage d) disaster
6 Five world leaders are due to attend the …….. meeting in London.
a) tip b) top c) summit d) peak
2.7 Read these sentences (1-10) and then use the words in bold to complete the sentences below (a-j).
1 Exhaust fumes from cars are responsible for much of the air pollution in cities.
2 Many factories still allow pollutants, such as toxic waste, to flow into our rivers.
3 We should put our old newspapers and bottles in recycling bins.
4 Ecology is the relationship between plants, animals, people and their environment.
5 Scientists are concerned about the size of the hole in the ozone layer, as ozone helps stop harmful radiation entering the Earth’s surface.
6 Organizations like Friends of the Earth are often referred to as green organizations.
7 People who live in the countryside live in a rural environment.
8 People who live in towns and cities live in an urban environment.
9 Dinosaurs became extinct millions of years ago; there will never be dinosaurs again.
10 Global warming is the theory that the world’s average temperature is increasing.
a) If …….. continues, the polar ice caps will start melting and the sea level will rise.
b) Some aerosol cans give off ÑFÑ gases which enter the atmosphere and destroy the …….. .
c) If we don’t protect endangered species, they may become …….. .
d) …….. is important because it means that factories have to produce less new plastic, glass and paper.
e) The filter prevents dangerous …….. from entering the atmosphere through the chimney.
f) Some children in …….. environments don’t realize that milk comes from cows!
g) Electric cars don’t produce any …….. so they are much cleaner.
h) I’m a very …….. person; I recycle, use public transport, and care about the environment.
i) Until the Industrial Revolution, most Europeans had a very …….., agricultural way of life.
j) The …….. of rainforests changes when trees are cut down.
2.8 Read the following four short texts and answer the questions:
1 Which text:
● says about the influence of exhaust fumes?
● gives information about radioactive pollution?
● worries about infertile lands?
2 What plants can survive only in clean air?
3 What are special electronic signs designed for?
4 How do you understand the phrase: “to combat a problem”?
A LICHEN POLLUTION TEST
Plants called lichens are sensitive to air pollution, especially the air’s acidity, so you can use their presence or absence to see how clean your air is. Shrubby and leafy lichens only survive in clean air. In the most polluted areas there are none at all. Look for lichens on walls, stones and trees, and use this scale to rate the air quality.
Pollution is now a major problem in marine ecosystems. Over 80% of this comes from land-based activities, e.g. sewage and industrial waste. Conditions are worst in enclosed areas like the Mediterranean and the North Sea, where levels of pollution are now so high that wildlife and human health are threatened.
Drum containing – dangerous radioactive nuclear waste dumped at sea. Measures are finally being taken to combat this international problem, but it will be a long and difficult job.
TRANSPORT AND POLLUTION
Pollution from the ever-growing volume of vehicle exhaust is making life more and more unpleasant in many of the world’s major cities. Ozone, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and lead and dust particles all endanger the health of the cities’ people and wildlife.
The removal of lead from petrol and the use of devices known as three-way catalytic converters to control exhaust fumes are two ways of lessening the problem.
In Tokyo, Japan, special electronic signs show the levels of noise and air pollution.
Most of the earth’s surface is covered by a layer of soil, ranging from 0,5cm thick in mountainous regions to 2m in cultivated areas. We all depend on this thin layer for our food supplies, yet everywhere it is threatened by soil erosion.
Over-grazing, poor irrigation, intensive farming and the destruction of tree cover mean that vital topsoil is left exposed, and much is being blown or washed away. If this continuous, we may not left to grow enough food.
2.9 Complete the following text with the correct derivation of the word in bold.
One person, the American (1) …….. Thomas Midgely, created
what are considered to be two of today’s biggest (2) …….. evils – CFCs and leaded petrol.
His inventions show how science can (3) …….. practical
problems but how (4) …….. perfect ideas can
have (5) …….. consequences.
After WW1, Midgely was searching for a chemical (6) …….. to the problem of an irritating knocking sound heard coming from
car engines. This saw the (7) …….. of leaded petrol.
Nowadays, most (8) …….. believe that lead causes
(9) …….. pollution and brain damage in young children.
Midgely then turned to the refrigerator industry in an attempt to make (10) …….. to the cooling systems. He developed a substance known as CFC, which as we know, is damaging the earth’s ozone layer.
In 1940, Midgely was paralysed by polio. He invented a pulley system to (11) …….. him to get out of bed. Sadly, in 1944 he strangled himself while using it.
2.10 Complete the following text with the correct derivation of the word in bold.
SAVING THE ENVIRONMENT
People are becoming (1) …….. worried about
the (2) …….. of the environment,
(3) …….. the burning of fossil fuel, which contributes to
(4) …….. warming. Indeed, if the Earth was to warm by as little
as 2°C, many parts of the world would become (5) …….. due to
flooding. There would also be massive (6) …….. problems as
farmers tried to feed the growing (7) …….. in a changing
climate. (8) …….. agree that urgent measures have to be taken to prevent a world-wide catastrophe. They have drawn up a list
of (9) …….. which have been issued to
(10) …….. in the hope that they will bring about
the (11) …….. that are urgently needed.
2.11 Read the following statements of people about the places where they live. Say whether you think they are happy with their local environment, dissatisfied or concerned about it. Give reasons for your answers.
1 “This is a lovely place to live but if they build the new road through here, things will change. Instead of being able to hear birdsong we’ll just get the roar of heavy traffic.”
2 “It would be so nice to have a few trees around us rather than concrete and rubbish everywhere you look.”
3 “There’s a great view over the valley from the hill just up the road where I take the dog in the mornings.”
4 “This is a dirty old industrial area but we’ve got some nice parks and there are some pleasant walks down by the canal.”
2.12 Anything you do to your environment will have an effect back on you. Do you agree with this statement?
► Which of the following issues are taken seriously in our country?
● energy saving at home
● buying “green” products
● environmentally friendly transport
● anti-pollution campaigns
● recycling of waste material
● organic gardening and farming
● anti-litter campaigns
● clean park campaigns
► Have you ever noticed how you effect your own environment?
● Where is your food from?
● What happens to your rubbish?
● Do recycling facilities exist where you live?
● Have you ever planted trees?
● What animals and plants live around you?
● Which of the ecological problems you consider to be the most important?