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When examining our effect upon our environment, we cannot ignore the problem of pollution. There are many varieties, including air and water pollution, noise pollution, soil contamination, solid waste pollution.

Sources and reasons of pollution may be different. For example, the principle sources of air pollution are divided into 2 categories: anthropogenic (human activity) and natural.


2.1 Look at the phrases below and decide which can be used to describe anthropogenic factors and which can be used to describe natural factors. Fill in the table.

dust storms / forest fires / power plants / car exhaust fumes / burning wood / volcanic eruption / oil refining / aerosol sprays / nuclear weapon

anthropogenic factors natural factors
  dust storms

2.2 Match the definitions:

1 smog a) metal container for food and drink

2 waste b) relating to cities

3 urban c) rubbish

4 can d) throwing away wastes

5 garbage e) illness (n)

6 disease f) mixture of smoke and fog

7 flood g) useless materials

8 stock h) amount

9 breath i) take air in your lungs

10 dumping j) large amount of water


2.3 Make statements about environmental problems, choosing the correct information from the table.

Model: Acid rain is created by power stations and car exhausts. It kills life in rivers and lakes.

Environmental problems Main causes Most serious effects
water pollution nuclear power stations increases the risk of skin cancer
noise pollution refrigerators, air-conditioning leads to several forms of cancer
acid rain forest fires creates floods and soil erosion
ozone layer damage car exhausts, power stations threatens fish stocks
radiation loud music, power tools, transport results in breathing disorders
urban smog oil, industrial waste, sewage kills life in rivers and lakes
tree loss solid wastes (used cans, bottles, plastic containers, paper) damages people’s mental health
air pollution smokes from factories increases the risk of infection from garbage
land pollution cutting down tropical rainforests causes respiratory diseases


2.4 Fill in the gaps with the verbs given below. Mind the grammar tense.

increase / lead / create / threaten / result / damage / cause / reduce

1 High level of pollution …….. wildlife and human health.

2 Using public transport rather than private cars …….. air pollution.

3 Lack of trees and intensive farming …….. a ‘dust bowl’.

4 A pleasant environment …….. positive feelings and emotions.

5 Improved carburettors …….. toxic fumes.

6 Certain European industries …….. the environment.

7 A reduction in water quality …….. to a crisis in fishing.

8 Air pollution …….. from a variety of causes.


2.5 Match the beginnings of the sentences in A with their endings in B.


1 If the woodlands continue to be damaged a) but in a concentrated form it can kill animals.
2 Carbon dioxide is a normal component of the atmosphere, b) and many big cities have taken measures to decrease the level of urban noise.
3 If a species becomes extinct, c) if the air is polluted.
4 At a level of 80 decibels sound is annoying, d) and millions of ordinary people understand this too.
5 Pollution may begin as water moves through the air, e) it will threaten the ecological balance in Europe.
6 Ocean dumping creates water pollution f) it cannot be brought back.
7 In 1986 the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered a fire g) and destroys marine habitat.
8 We need a cleaner, healthier planet h) resulting in a major release of radioactive particles.


Date: 2014-12-22; view: 1450

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