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ANNEX 1. CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ORGANISMS

KINDOM MONERA Prokaryotes, i.e., cell which lack a nucleur envelope, chloroplasts

and other plastids, mitochondria, and 9 + 2 flagella. Monera are unicellular but sometimes aggregate into filaments or other superficially multicellular bodies. Reproduction is asxexual, by fission or budding.

 

PHYLUM PHYLUM SCHIZOPHYTA: Unicellular prokaryotic reproduction – asexual by cell division; nutrition is heterotrophic. About 3,000

species.

 

PHYLUM CYANOPHITA: blue-green algue. Unicellular or colonial; prokaryotic; chlorophyll; but no chloroplasts; nutrition is autotrophic; reproduction by fission. About 200 species.

 

KINGDOM PROTISTA Eukaryotic unicellular organisms. Their modes of nutrition include ingestion, photosynthesis, and sometimes absorbtion. Reproduction sexual and asexual.


PHYLUM PHYLUM PROTOZOA: microscopic, unicellular or simpe colonial heterotrophic organisms;reproduction usually asexual by mitotic division; About 30,000 species.

 

       
 
 
   


CLASS Class Mastigophora: protozoans with flagella, including a number of symbiotic forms such as Trichonympha and Trypanozoa, the cause of sleeping sickness.

 

Class Sarcodina: protozoans with pseudopodia, such as amoebas.

Class Ciliophora: protozoas with cilia, including Paramecium and Stento.

Class Sporozoa: parasitic protozoans; includes Plasmodium several species of which cause malaria.

PHYLUM

PHYLUM CHRYSOPHITA: golden algue and diatoms. Autotrophic organisms with chloroplasts. Cell wall consist mostly of pectic compounds. Some 6,000 and 10,000 species.

 


CLASS Class Bacillariophyceae: diatoms. Chlrysophyta with double siliceouns shells. There are many extinct and 5,000 to 9,000 living species.

 

Class Chrysophyceae: golden algue. A diverse of group of organisms including flagellated, amoeboid, and nonmotile form. At least 1,000 species.

 

PHYLUM

PHYLUM PYRROPHYTA: “fire” algue or golden-brown algue. Autotrophic organisms with chlorophylls. Cell wall contain cellulose. Phylum contains some 1,100 species.


CLASS Class Diophceae: dinofllagellates. Pyrrophyta with lateral flagella, one of which beats in groove that encircles the organism. They have no form of sexual reproduction and their mitosis unlike that in any other organism. More than 1,000 species.

 

PHYLUM PHYLUM EUGLENOPHYTA: euglenoids. Autotrophic organisms with chlorophylls. Euglenoids usually have a single apical flagellum and the contractive vacuole. Sexual reproduction is unkown. Occur mostly in fresh water. There are some 450 species.

 

PHYLUM GYMNOMYCOTA: the slime molds. Heterotrophic amoeboid organisms. Predominant mode of nutrition is by ingestion. There are three classes:

 


CLASS

Class Myxomycetes: plasmodium slime molds. Slime molds with multinucate plasmodium which creeps along as a mass and eventually differentiates into sporangia, each of which is multinucleate. About 450 species.



 

Class Acrasiomycetes: cellular slime molds. Seven genera and about 26 species.

 

Class Protostelidomycetes: the amoebas may remain separate or mass, but each one eventually differentiates into a simple stalked sporangium with one or two spores. Five genera and more than a dozen species.

 

 


KINGDOM FUNGI Eukaryotic unicellular or multinucleate organisms in which the nuclei occur in a continuous mycelium; this mycelium becomes septare in certain groups and certain stages of the life cycle. They are heterotrophic, with nutrition by absorbtion. Reproduction are sexual and asexual phases. More than 100,000 species.

CLASS Class Oomycetes: Mostly aquantic fungi, their cell wall are composed of glucose polymers including cellulose. There are several hundred species.

 

Class Zygomycetes: terrestrial fungi. Chitin predominant in the cell walls. The class includes several hundred species.

 

Class Ascomycetes: terrestrial and aquantic plants, including Neurospor, powdery mildews,morels, truffles. Sexual reproduction involves the formation of a characterisric wall, ascus, in which meiosis takes place and within which spores are formed. About 30,000 species.

 

Class Basidiomycetes: terrestrial fungi, including mushrooms and toadstools. Chitin is predominant in the cell wall. Sexual reproduction involves formation of basidia, in which meiosis take place and on which the spores are borne. There are 25,000 species.

Fungi Imperfecti: Fungi Imperfecti are classified asexual spore-bearing organs. There are 25,000 species, including a Penicilum, the original source of penicillin, fungi which cause athlete’s foot and other skin disease and many of the molds which give cheese.

 

Lichens: The lichens are fungi symbiotic with unicellular algae. About 17,000 described species.

 


KINGDOM PLANTAE Multcellular eukaryotes and related unicellular forms. Nutrition by photosintesis. The cell wall contain of cellulose. Their reproduction is sexual with gematophytic and sporophytic phases. Red and brown algae have an origin separate from the rest.

       
 
 
   

 


PHYLUM PHYLUM RHODOPHYTA: red algae. In this phylum presence chlorophyll and pigments known as phycobilins. The plant body build up of closely packed filaments in a gelatinous matrix. It lacks specialized conducting cells. There are some 4,000 species.

 

PHYLUM PHAEOPHYTA: broun algae. Multicellular marine plants charterized by the presence of chlorophyll and pigment fucoxantin. Their food reserve is a carbohydrate called laminarin. There is no differentiation into leaves, roots, and stem, as in the land plants. About 1,000 species.

 

PHYLUM CHLOPHYTA: green algae. Unicellular and multicellular plants characterized by chlorophylls and various carotenoids. The carbohydrate food reserve in starch. True multicellular genera do not exbibit complex patterns of differentiation. There are about 7,000 species.

 

PHYLUM BRYOPHYTA: mosses, hornworts and liverworts. They have gametangia with a multicellular sterile jacket one cell layer thick. The sperm are biflagellate and motile. More than 23,500 species.

 

CLASS Class Hepaticae: liverworts. The gametophyte are either thallose or leafy, and the sporophytes relatively simple in construction. About 9,000 species.

 

Class Antherocerotae: hornworts. The gametophytes are thallose. Stomata are present on the sporophyte. About 100 species.

 

Class Musci: the gametophytes are leafy. Sporophytes have complex patterns of spore discharge. Stomata are present on the sporohyte. About 14,500 species.

 

 
 


PHYLUM PHYLUM TRACHEOPHYTA: vascular plants. Terrestrial plants into leaves,roots and stem. The vascular have well-developed strands of conductins tissue for the transport of water and organic materials. The main trendsof evolution in the vascular plants involve progressive reduction in the gametophyte. The phylum includes the following subphyla with living representatives:

 


SUBPHYLUM SUBPHYLUM LYCOPHYTINA: lycophytes. All lycophytes have motile sperm. Homosporous and heterosporous vascular plants with microphylls. There are five genera and 1,000 species.

 

SUBPHYLUM SPENOPHYTINA: horsetails. Leaves are scalelike. Sperm are motile. Although now thought to have evolved from a megaphyll, the leaves of the horsetails are structurally indistinguishable from microphylls. There is one genus, Equisetum, with about two dozen living species.

 

SUBPHYLUM PTEROPHYTINA: ferns, gymnosperms, and flowering plants. Although diverce, these groups posses in common the megaphyll, which in certain genera has become much reduced. About 260,000 species.

 

 

 


CLASS Class Filicineae: the ferns. They are homosphorous although some are heterosporous. Multicellular gametangia and free-swimming sperm are present. About 11,000 species.

 

Class Coniferinae: the conifers. Seed plants with active cambial growth simple leaves and in which the ovules are not enclosed and the sperm are not flagellated.There are some 50 genera and about 550 species.

 

Class Cycadinae: cycads. The ovules are flagellated and motile, but are carried to the vicinity of the ovule in apollen tube. There are nine genera and about 100 species.

Class Ginkgoinae: ginkgo. Seed plants active cambial growth and fan-shaped leaves with open dichotomous venation. Sperm are carried to the vicinity of the ovule in a pollen tube, but are flagellated and motile. They are gymnosperms. There is one species only.

 

Class An giospermae: flowering plants. Seed plants in which the ovules are enclosed in a carpel, and the seeds at maturity are borne within fruits. They are extremely diverse vegatetively but characterized by the flower which is basically insect-pollinated. The gametophyts are much reduced, with the female gametophyte often consisting of only eight cells or nuclei at maturity. About 250,000 species.

 


SUBCLASS Subclass Dicotyleone: dicots. Flower parts in four or fives; leaf venation is usually netlike, pinnate or palmate; there are two cotyledons; vascular bundles in the stem are in a ring. About 190,000 species.

 

Subclass Monocotyledonae: monocots. Flower usually in threes, leaf venation is usually parallel; there is one cotyledon and vascular bundles in the stem are scattered. About 60,000 species.

 

KINGDOM MONERA

Prokaryotes, i.e., cell which lack a nucleur envelope, chloroplasts and other plastids, mitochondria and 9 + 2 flagella. Monera are unicellular but sometimes aggregate into filaments or other superficially multicellular bodies. Reproduction is asexual, by fission or budding.

PHYLUM SCHIZOPHYTA

Unicellular prokaryotic reproduction – asexual by cell division; nutrition is heterotrophic. About 3,000 species.

PHYLUM CYANOPHYTA

Blue-green algue. Unicellular or colonial; prokaryotic; chlorophyll; but no chloroplasts; nutrition is autotrophic; reproduction by fission. About 200 species.

KINDOM PROTISTA

Eukaryotic unicellular organisms. Their modes of nutrition include ingestion, photosynthesis and sometimes absorption. Reproduction is sexual and asexual.

PHYLUM PROTOZOA

Microscopic, unicellular or simple colonial heterotrophic organisms; reproduction usually is asexual by mitotic division; there are about 30,000 species.

Class Mastigophora: protozoans with flagella including a number of symbiotic forms such as Trichonympha and Trypanozoa (cause of sleeping sickness).

Class Sarcodina: protozoans with pseudopodia, for example amoebas.

Class Ciliophora: protozoas with cilia, including Paramecium and Stento.

Class Sporozoa: parasitic protozoans; includes Plasmodium several species of which cause malaria.

PHYLUM CHRYSOPHYTA

Golden algae and diatoms. Autotrophic organisms with chloroplasts. Cell wall consists mostly of pectin compounds. Some 6,000 and 10,000 species.

Class Bacillariophyceae: diatoms. Chrysophyta with double siliceouns shells. There are many extinct and 5,000 to 9,000 living species.

Class Chrysophyceae: golden algae. A diverse of group of organisms including flagellated, amoeboid, and nonmotile form. At least 1,000 species.

PHYLUM PYRROPHYTA

“Fire” algae or golden-brown ones. Autotrophic organisms with chlorophylls. Cell wall contains cellulose. Phylum contains some 1,100 species.

Class Diophyceae: dinofllagellates. Pyrrophyta with lateral flagella, one of which beats in groove that encircles the organism. They have no form of sexual reproduction and their mitosis unlike that in any other organism. There are more than 1,000 species.

PHYLUM EUGLENOPHYTA

Euglenoids. Autotrophic organisms with chlorophylls. Euglenoids usually have a single apical flagellum and the contractive vacuole. Sexual reproduction is unknown. Occur mostly in fresh water. There are some 450 species.

PHYLUM GYMNOMYCOTA

The slime molds. Heterotrophic amoeboid organisms. Predominant mode of nutrition is by ingestion. There are three classes:

Class Myxomycetes: plasmodium slime molds. Slime molds with multinuclear plasmodium which creeps along as a mass and eventually differentiates into sporangia, each of which is multinucleate. There are about 450 species.

Class Acrasiomycetes: cellular slime molds. There are seven genera and about 26 species.

Class Protostelidomycetes: the amoebas may remain separate or mass, but each one eventually differentiates into a simple stalked sporangium with one or two spores. There are five genera and more than a dozen species.

KINGDOM FUNGI

Eukaryotic unicellular or multinucleate organisms in which the nuclei occur in a continuous mycelium; this mycelium becomes septare in certain groups and certain stages of the life cycle. They are heterotrophic, with nutrition by absorption. Reproduction is sexual and asexual phases. There are more than 100,000 species.

Class Oomycetes: mostly aquantic fungi, their cell walls are composed of glucose polymers including cellulose. There are several hundred species.

Class Zygomycetes: terrestrial fungi. Chitin predominant in the cell walls. The class includes several hundred species.

Class Ascomycetes: terrestrial and aquatic plants, including Neurospor, powdery mildews, morels, truffles. Sexual reproduction involves the formation of a characteristic wall, ascus, in which meiosis takes place and within which spores are formed. There are about 30,000 species.

Class Basidiomycetes: terrestrial fungi, including mushrooms and toadstools. Chitin is predominant in the cell wall. Sexual reproduction involves formation of basidia, in which meiosis takes place and on which the spores are borne. There are 25,000 species.

Fungi Imperfecti: Fungi Imperfecti are classified asexual by spore-bearing organs. There are 25,000 species, including a Penicilum, the original source of penicillin, fungi which cause athlete’s foot and other skin disease and many of the molds which give cheese.

Lichens: The lichens are fungi symbiotic with unicellular algae. About 17,000 described species.

 

KINGDOM PLANTAE

Multicellular eukaryotes and related unicellular forms. Nutrition occurs by photosynthesis. The cell wall contains cellulose. Their reproduction is sexual with gematophytic and sporophytic phases. Red and brown algae have an origin separate from the rest.

PHYLUM RHODOPHYTA

Red algae. In this phylum presence chlorophyll and other pigments known as phycobilins. The plant body is built up of closely packed filaments in a gelatinous matrix. It lacks specialized conducting cells. There are some 4,000 species.

PHYLUM PHAEOPHYTA

Brown algae. Multicellular marine plants characterized by the presence of chlorophyll and pigment fucoxantin. Their food reserve is a carbohydrate called laminaryn. There is no differentiation into leaves, roots, and stem, as in the land plants. There are about 1,000 species.

PHYLUM CHLOROPHYTA

Green algae. Unicellular and multicellular plants characterized by chlorophylls and various carotenoids. The carbohydrate food reserves in starch. True multicellular genera do not exhibit complex patterns of differentiation. There are about 7,000 species.

PHYLUM BRYOPHYTA

Mosses, hornworts and liverworts. They have gametangia with a multicellular sterile jacket one cell layer thick. The sperm are biflagellate and motile. There are more than 23,500 species.

Class Hepaticae: liverworts. The gametophytes are either thallose or leafy, and the sporophytes are relatively simple in construction. There are about 9,000 species.

Class Antherocerotae: hornworts. The gametophytes are thallose. Stomata are present on the sporophyte. About 100 species.

Class Musci: the gametophytes are leafy. Sporophytes have complex patterns of spore discharge. Stomata are present on the sporohyte. There are about 14,500 species.

PHYLUM TRACHEOPHYTA

Vascular plants. Terrestrial plants with leaves, roots and stems. The vascular have well-developed strands of conductins tissue for the transport of water and organic materials. The main trends of evolution in the vascular plants involve progressive reduction in the gametophyte. The phylum includes the following subphyla with living representatives:

SUBPHYLUM LYCOPHYTINAL

Lycophytes. All lycophytes have motile sperm. Homosporous and heterosporous vascular plants with microphylls. There are five genera and 1,000 species.

SUBPHYLUM SPENOPHYTINA

Horsetails. Leaves are scalelike. Sperm is motile. Although now thought to have evolved from a megaphyll, the leaves of the horsetails are structurally indistinguishable from microphylls. There is one genus, Equisetum, with about two dozen living species. SUBPHYLUM PTEROPHYTINA

Ferns, gymnosperms and flowering plants. Although diverce, these groups posses in common the megaphyll, which in certain genera has become much reduced. There are about 260,000 species.

Class Filicineae: the ferns. They are homosphorous although some are heterosporous. Multicellular gametangia and free-swimming sperm are present. There are about 11,000 species.

Class Coniferinae: the conifers. Seed plants with active cambial growth simple leaves and in which the ovules are not enclosed and the sperm is not flagellated. There are some 50 genera and about 550 species.

Class Cycadinae: cycads. The ovules are flagellated and motile, but are carried to the vicinity of the ovule in apollen tube. There are nine genera and about 100 species.

Class Ginkgoinae: ginkgo. Seed plants active cambial growth and fan-shaped leaves with open dichotomous venation. Sperm are carried to the vicinity of the ovule in a pollen tube, but are flagellated and motile. They are gymnosperms. There is one species only.

Class Angiospermae: flowering plants. Seed plants in which the ovules are enclosed in a carpel, and the seeds at maturity are borne within fruits. They are extremely diverse vegatetively but characterized by the flower,which is basically insect-pollinated. The gametophyts are much reduced, with the female gametophyte often consisting of only eight cells or nuclei at maturity. There are about 250,000 species.

Subclass Dicotyleone: dicots. Flower parts in four or fives; leaf venation is usually netlike, pinnate or palmate; there are two cotyledons; vascular bundles in the stem are in a ring. There are about 190,000 species.

Subclass Monocotyledonae: monocots. Flower usually in threes, leaf venation is usually parallel; there is one cotyledon and vascular bundles in the stem are scattered. There are about 60,000 species.

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

  1. Jovanovich H.B. Biology.- Florida: Orlando, 1989.-926p.
  2. Wallace R.H., Walter K.T. Invertebrate zoology, a laboratory manual, fifth edition.-Florida: Prentice-Hall, 1997.-336p.
  3. Kukenthal W., Renner M. Leitfaden fur das zoologische Praktikum, 18.Aufl. Fischer Jena, 1980.-140p.
  4. Remane A., Storch V., Welsch W. Systematische zoologie.- Fischer Jena,1976.-200p.
  5. Audesirk T., Audesirk G., Byers B.E. Life on Earth, Second edition, Study guide. – Addison Wesley, 2000. – 728p.
  6. Curtis H. Biology, Second edition. – Worth Publishers inc., 1975. – 1065p.
  7. Global Biodiversity Outlook. Published by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. - Montreal, 2001. – 282 p.
  8. Global Biodiversity Assessment. Executive / Editor V.H. Heywood, Chair R.T. Watson. Published for the UNEP by Cambridge University Press. – Ñambridge, 1995. – 1140 p.

 

 

Other information resources

 

· Global Biodiversity Outlook 2 (www.cbd.int/gbo2)

· Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (www.millenniumassessment.org)

· Global Environment Outlook 4 (www.unep.org/GEO/GEO4)

· International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for

Development (www.agassessment.org)

· 4th Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (www.ipcc.ch )

· Countdown 2010 Readiness Assessment (www.countdown2010.net)

· The 2010 Biodiversity Indicators Partnership (www.twentyten.net)

· The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (www.iucnredlist.org).

 

 


TERMS AND DEFINITION INDEX

A

acid

(alpha) helix

amino sugars

anabolic reactions

anabolism

anion

aqueous solution

atom

atomic number

atomic weight

Avogadro’s number

autophagy

 

B

base

(beta) pleated sheet

biochemical unity

bubble theory

buffer

 

C

carbohydrate

carotenoids

calorie

chaperonin

catabolic reactions

catabolism

cation

Cellulose

Cell fractionation

cell theory

cell wall

cellular respiration

chemical bond

chemical evolution

chemical reactions

chitin

Chloroplasts

Chromatin

chromosomes

complementary base pairing

complex ions

composition of a protein

condensation reaction

constant internal environment

covalent bond

cytoplasm

cytosol

 

D

denaturation

deoxyribonucleotides

disulfide bridge

disaccharide

 

E

 

electron

electronegativity

electron microscope

electron shells

element

endomembrane system

endoplasmic reticulum

energy

enthalpy

entropy

ester

Eukaryotic cell

evaporation

 

F

fatty acid

flagella

free energy

functional group

 

G

Glycerol

Glycogen

glycosidic linkage

glucose

Golgi apparatus

 

H

hexose

hydrocarbon molecule

hydrogen bond

hydrolysis reaction

hydrophilic molecule

hydrophobic molecule

 

I

ice floats

inner membrane

ionic bond

isomer

isotope

 

J

 

K

kinetic energy

 

L

law of mass action

light microscope

lipids

Lysosomes

lysosomal storage diseases

 

M

Macromolecule

mass number

mechanistic view

mesosomes

mitochondrion

mole

molecule

molecular weight

monomer

monosaccharide

multiple covalent bonds

 

N

neutrons

nonpolar covalent bond

N terminus

nuclear envelope

nuclear matrix

nuclear pores

nucleic acids

nucleoid

nucleolus

nucleoplasm

nucleotides

nucleus

 

O

octet rule

oils

oligosaccharide

orbital

organelles

optical isomer

 

P

Pentose

peptide linkage

peptidoglycan

phagocytosis

phosphodiester linkages

phospholipids

plasma membrane

polar covalent bond

polymer

polypeptide chain

polysaccharide

potential energy

potential chemical energy

primary structure of a protein

Prokaryotic cell

products of the chemical reaction

Proline

protein

protobionts

protons

 

Q

qualitative analysis

quantitative analysis

quaternary structure of a protein

 

R

radioisotopes

reactions

reactant

reversible reaction

R group

ribosomal RNA

Ribonucleotides

Ribosomes

Ribozymes

rough endoplasmic reticulum

S

salt bridge

saturated fatty acids

secondary structure of a protein

selectively permeable barrier

side chain

simple lipids

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

solute

solvent

specific heat of a substance

Starch

steroids

structural isomer

sugar phosphates

surface area-to-volume ratio

 

T

tertiary structure of the protein

triglycerides

 

U

unsaturated fatty acids

 

V

vacuoles

van der Waals forces

Vitamins

 

W

weak acid

 

X

 

Y

 

Z

 


 


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