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The development of science and culture of the country in 60-s of XX c.


The collapse of the USSR and the formation of the CIS.

The collapse of the Soviet Union.

All 1990 and especially in 1991, among the main problems facing the Soviet Union, there was a problem signing of a new Union treaty. The work of preparing it has led to a number of projects that were published in 1991. In March 1991, on the initiative of Mikhail Gorbachev held the all-Union referendum on the question of whether or not to be the Soviet Union and how it be. The majority of the population voted in favor of the preservation of the USSR USSR.

However, the new government in the Union republics emerge from the 1990 election, were more strongly tuned to the changes than the union leadership. By the end of 1990 almost all the republics of the USSR adopted the Declaration of sovereignty, the rule of law over the national union. A situation that observers dubbed the "parade of sovereignties" and "the laws of war." Political power has gradually shifted from a center in the country.

Gorbachev went on vacation in Crimea, Foras, intending to return to Moscow on August 19. But, August 19, 1991, the country announced the creation of the State Emergency Committee (coup), and President of the USSR, who was in Foras has been isolated, in fact it was a coup d'etat. These events precipitated the collapse of the USSR.

Creation of the CIS.

In November 1991, Novo-Ogaryovo for seven republics (Russia, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan) announced their intention to create a new inter-state formation - the Union of Sovereign States (SSG). Leaders of the "Group of Seven" decided before the end of 1991 to sign a new Union Treaty. On November 25, 1991 was scheduled to be signed. But that did not happen. Put his signature only Mikhail Gorbachev, and the project was sent to Parliament for approval of seven republics. It was just an excuse. In fact, everyone was waiting for the outcome assigned to the 1 December 1991 referendum on the independence of Ukraine. The population of Ukraine in December 1991 voted for the Total Independence of Ukraine, burying thereby hopes to save the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev.

The impotence of the center led to the fact that the December 8, 1991 in the Bialowieza Forest, near Brest, the leaders of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine signed an agreement on the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). It spoke of how "the founders of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, the Union Treaty signed in 1922, state that the USSR as a subject of international law has ceased to exist" 1). This agreement will terminate the contract in 1922 on the formation of the USSR and at the same time formed a CIS.

Then, on December 13 leaders of the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan for a meeting in Ashgabat Belovezhskoe analyzed the agreement and expressed their willingness to full participation in the formation of a new community.

December 21, 1991 in Alma-Ata meeting leaders of the "three", "five", Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova. At Alma-Ata meeting adopted the Declaration on the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the formation of nine CIS states.

Date: 2015-01-29; view: 538

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