The “Secret Speech” of Nikita Khrushchev and desalinization
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 15, 1894 - September 11, 1971) led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War. He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 until 1964 and as chairman of the Council of Ministers or the Prime Minister, from 1958 until 1964. Khrushchev was responsible for the partial de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union, in order to support the promotion of the early Soviet space program, and for several relatively liberal reforms in areas of domestic policy. Khrushchev's party colleagues removed him from power in 1964, replacing it with Leonid Brezhnev.
In the struggle for power caused by the death of Stalin in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev, after several years, emerged victorious. February 25, 1956, at the Twentieth Party Congress, he put the "Secret Speech", denouncing Stalin's cleansing and declaring the less repressive era in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). His domestic policies aimed at improving the lives of ordinary citizens, were often ineffective, especially in the field of agriculture. Hoping eventually to rely on missiles for national defense, Khrushchev ordered major reductions in conventional forces. Despite the cuts, Khrushchev's rule saw the most intense years of the Cold War, culminating in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
The Secret Speech, while it did not significantly alter the Soviet society, had extensive effects. It was a factor in the excitement in Poland and revolution in Hungary later in 1956, and Stalin defenders led four days of unrest in his native Georgia in June, calling for Khrushchev resigned and Molotov to take over. In meetings where the Secret Speech was read, communists would make even more severe condemnation of Stalin (Khrushchev), and even call for multi-party elections. However, Stalin was not publicly condemned, and his portrait remained widespread through the USSR, from airports to Khrushchev's Kremlin office. Mikhail Gorbachev, then a Komsomol official, recalled that, although the young and educated Soviets in his district were excited speech, many others decried it, or defending Stalin or seeing little point in digging the past. Forty years later, after the fall of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev praised Khrushchev for his courage to take on the huge political risk and showing to be a "moral person in the end."
The term "Secret Speech" proved to be an extraordinary misuse. While visitors to the Speech were all Soviet, Eastern European delegates were allowed to hear it the following night, read slowly to allow them to take notes. By March 5, copies were mailed throughout the Soviet Union, marked "not for the press" rather than "top secret." The official translation appeared within a month in Poland, Poles printed 12,000 extra copies, one of which soon reached the West. Khrushchev's son, Sergei, later wrote, "learly, Father tried to ensure that it reaches as many ears as possible. This was soon read at Komsomol meetings, which meant another eighteen million listeners. If you include their relatives, friends and acquaintances, You could say that the whole country has become familiar with the speech ... Spring has just begun, when it began to circulate around the world. "
The policy of "perestroika" in Kazakhstan (1985-1991)
By the mid 80's the Soviet Union was on the threshold of an economic, social and political crisis. The administrative-command system was not in sotoyanii with the realities of the modern era. Began to feel the urgent need obgovleniya all sides of society, its economic foundations of social life, the political structure of the spiritual sphere.
In March 1985, after the death of Konstantin Chernenko, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, was elected the youngest member of the Politburo of Mikhail Gorbachev. Shortly after the April (1985) Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU, where many of the issues of socio-economic life have been put in a new way. He declared a policy of accelerating social and economic development of the country. Gorbachev period (1985 -1991 years.) Lasted 7 years and made history as the "Restructuring". In Istria restructuring clearly distinguishable four stages:
1st stage - March 1985 - January 1987. This phase took place under the slogan - "acceleration" and "more socialism".
2nd stage - 1987 - 1988. Leypmotivom this stage were the slogans - "more democracy" and "transparency."
Third stage -1989 -1990 years. the period of "confusion and hesitation." This period was characterized by a split in the same camp before the restructuring, the transition to open political, ethnic confrontation.
Stage 4 - 1990 - 1991. This stage was marked by the collapse of the world socialist system. The political bankruptcy of the Communist Party and the collapse of the Soviet Union.
In 1986, in the economic life of the country appeared innovation - State Acceptance (state acceptance). Predpolagalost that taking the finished product enterprises will carry out an independent state commission of enterprises. The results were very prachevny, at the end of 1987 has not passed state acceptance 15-18% of industrial production.
In the social sphere was the start of several companies: total computerization of schools, the fight against drunkenness and alcoholism and unearned income. Especially caused a wide resonance which appeared in 1985 Decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU "On measures to tackle alcohol abuse and alcoholism."
In the political area which took place in 1986 XXVII Congress of the CPSU limited appeals to improve social democracy. The failure of all undertakings showed up in early 1987.
In January 1987, the plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU was held that initiated significant changes in the economic and political life of the Soviet Union, which can rightly be called reform.