Kazakh-Jungar relations in the 40s of XVII century: Features and forms.
From the very beginning of the XVIII century, the Kazakh Khanate, having gone through profound upheaval caused by the further aggravation of the foreign policy positions. The struggle between the Kazakhs and Dzungar rulers continued for more than a century. At the heart of it lay a rivalry because of pastures. In addition to grazing areas Dzungarian huntaydzhi attracted trade and craft centers of southern Kazakhstan. With the capture of the cities of southern Kazakhstan Dzungar lords opened the prospect of mastering not only trade and industrial centers, but also the territory, which hosted the caravan routes linking Kazakhstan with Russia and the East. Tsewang-Rabdan (1697-1727 gg.), His name is associated with severe oppression and suffering of the Kazakh people. Strengthening the Djungarian Khanate, he turned his efforts to seizures in Kazakh encampments. In the lands of the Kyrgyz Tien Shan, East Turkestan, among peoples of the Altai-Sayan and Baraba steppe Jungars applied one defeat after another, the hijacking of prisoners and cattle grazing and taking away the property. Dzhungars taiji in the 80th century XVII retains the Kazakh nomads in Zhetisu and the Chu and Talas. Large-scale invasion Dzungarian troops in the territory of Kazakhstan took place in the years 1710-1711. In autumn 1710 was convened a meeting of representatives of the Kazakh zhuzes in the Karakum Desert. The main issue - the attitude to Djungar Khanate. He was elected to the Supreme Commander of the number of khans - Abul Khair, was elected leader of the militia, Almaty. Military action Djungar increasingly escalated, huntaydzhi Tsevan Rabdan subdued Eastern Turkestan, made the invasion of Tibet. The main event of military action took place on a river Ayaguz. The victory of the Kazakhs. Because of the lack of unity in the leadership of Kazakh soldiers were defeated. In 1723, he was imprisoned Jungars-Chinese world. Dzhungars, having secured his rear from the East, was actively preparing for war with the Kazakhs.
By 1723 the Kazakh-Dzungarian respects the situation has changed dramatically: the Chinese emperor died Hansen. There was a question about the existence of the Kazakh people. In the "years of great disaster," killing two thirds of all the people. Many Kazakh clans and communities were not prepared for the unexpected shock Jungars. Also seized was in fact the entire territory of Kazakhstan, excluding the desert. Dzhungars occupied a large part of the Kazakh lands to the 20s of the XVIII century. Approximate boundaries between Dzungar and Kazakh possessions were Ulytau, Lake Balkhash and the strip between the rivers Chu and Talas. Pali Tashkent, Sairam, Turkestan. West gushing wave of refugees. The Kazakhs of the Little Horde long to remain within the Central Asian khanates, for the local rulers not only failed to provide them nomads, but at the same time with the Jungar invaders were not averse to rob them. Pressed Dzungars Kazakhs moved to the middle reaches of the Syr Darya, in the places where she lived much of the karakalpak. From Zhungar invasion in 1723-1725 gg. heavy damage inflicted as Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, but their position seemed less tragic.
Date: 2015-01-29; view: 1209