Medicine of Ukrainian lands in ancient times. Medicine of Ukraine-Rus during the middle ages.
The first description of the Trypilian culture square belong to the IV Millennium B.C. It rapidly developed over 2000 years, capturing the Neolithic, the bronze and the iron epoch. Tripilskoye the population of the occupied space from Ïîäíèïðîâüÿ to the Western Podillja, located mostly on increasing among high-yield lands. There are now hundreds of settlements with the remains of housing, fortified by ramparts and ditches.
Medical and veterinary use on the territory of ancient Ukraine mainly engaged in the Magi, nymphs, and kmeti. Kmeti called comprehensively talented people who could help and teach. The experience gained healers often passed from generation to generation. Doctor on heredity was called by the people “scientist doctor,” his people respected and carefully carried out his instructions. The word “drug” is derived from the Sanskrit “faces” - secret spirit of something. Doctor from the Sanskrit “likiti,” - the wise man, the artist, the one that skillfully writes, is keen.
Varied were the remedies in ancient times. Use the ointment of living plants, seeds, roots, flowers. Were known rose oil, lilies , lime-tree, walnut, beech, mustard, apricot and plum, and also from the seeds of wild pear-tree and Apple-tree. Did powders not only from plants of different parts, but of minerals and bones. Then the doctors were known, the stimulation anti-inflammatory, sedative and pain-relieving herbs. Combination of the latest applied in different proportions (Valerian, henbane, Mac, Datura, belladonna). This allowed the then doctors do surgery on the limbs, abdomen and skull.
Fragment of the exposition of the most ancient period of development of medicine on the territory of Ukraine
Idol of the cult of the mother
Of ancient peoples who inhabited our steppe southern lands, and most tourist attractions have left the Scythians. During the excavations Chertomlitsky mound near Nikopol, Kul-Ob near Kerch found gold and silver vases of Scythians. One of these shows Scythians, who provide medical care (dressing of the lower limbs, pulling a tooth).
The Scythian soldier treats a painful tooth to the companion.
The stamping image on a vase from a barrow of Kul-Oba.
Gold. IV century BC Leningrad. Hermitage
A major part of the Scythian medicine is therapeutic agents of vegetable origin (e.g. Adonis, sweet root, rhubarb, plantain, not to mention the onions, garlic and many other plants). Among medicinal plants in the Scythian medicine, there were quite strong, and even poisonous. To reduce the toxic effects of poisonous plants Scythian folk medicine, added to them impurities and broths, such as honey, leguminous plants and the like. Wide application in the Scythian medicine were also agents of animal origin (beaver jet, fats, brain). Scythian medicine were known “antlers” - a valuable medical goods of dried horns of young deer.
The Church Charter kN. Vladimir the Great, adopted in 996, announced hospital religious institutions, and the lechets” (doctors) - people of the Church, subordinate to the Bishop. KN. Vladimir the Great baptized, he built churches and hospitals, introduced the tithe for the poor, orphans, old and infirm. Carriers and spreaders of these ideas were monasteries, which were created on the sample of Greek. They became the cultural centers of Ukraine-Rus, cells knowledge, including medical. Arrived antique and early medieval medical manuscripts. The old Ukrainian language transferred monks (monks were chroniclers Nikon, Nestor). Written on parchment, these books have been preserved till our days.
Pechersk Paterikon brings to us the information on several devotees of the caves, that ïðîñëûëè their medical arts. On the tablets of Ukrainian history are names such ascetics, who were glorified with the gift of healing and treatment of patients, as Anthony Ïðåïîäîáíèé, Damian, Agapit of Pechersk, Alimpi Iconics y, Gregory the Wonderworker, Pimen Posnik and the like.
Next to the monastery medicine in Russia there was and secular, worldly medicine. The combination of these two directions in Kievan Rus is depicted in the famous tapestry “Kyivska Rus”.
Cities among representatives of different professions included individuals who were engaged in the healing business. Already in those days, some of them specialized in treatment of wounds, fractures (rizalnik ), bleeding (rudomet), others on the removal of teeth (çóáîâîëîêè), treatment of eye care postnatal period, and the like. These folk lechets enjoyed the confidence of the population and representatives of the authorities. Often the treatment was performed in the baths.
There were women-the healer - Febronia, Euphrosyne, Marina. Princess Anna Vsevolodovna in the XI century in Kiev opened a secular school, where was taught medicine. Granddaughter of Vladimir Monomakh - Eupraxia - published medical research dedicated to the questions of physiology, hygiene, propaedeutics and prevention of some diseases.
In the historical Chronicles of the unfavourable epidemiological situation was called “plaque”. Epidemic devastated cities and villages. Each plague, typhus, typhoid, intestinal infections, anthrax, smallpox and scurvy carefully recorded in the Chronicles as another kind of Mora.