An organizational structure can also be divided more or less horizontally into areas of management. The most common areas are finance, operations, marketing, human resources, and administration. Depending on its purpose and mission, an organization may include other areas as well Ė research and development, or risk management
A financial manager is primarily responsible for the organizationís financial resources. Accounting and investment are specialized areas within financial management.
An operations manager creates and manages the systems that convert resources into goods and services.
A marketing manager is responsible for the exchange of products between the organization and its customers or clients. Specific areas are marketing research, advertising, promotion, sales, and distribution.
A human resources manager is in charge of the organizationís human resources programs. He or she engages in human resources planning, design systems for hiring, training, and appraising the performance of the employees, and ensures that the organization follows government regulations concerning employment practices.
An administrative manager (a general manger) is not associated with any specific functional area but provides overall administrative leadership.
Exercise 3. Read the dialogue. Give the Russian equivalents to the underlined words and word combinations.
Ann is having lunch with her sister Barbara. Ann has just accepted a position as an Administrative Assistant. Her boss is an executive with a firm that manufactures heavy machinery used in construction.
Barbara: Youíve got a new job, Ann. My congratulations.
Ann: Thanks, Barbara.
Barbara: Tell me few words about your boss. What does he do?
Ann: Well, he is one of vice-presidents of the company, so heís rather important. He is an
Barbara: Do you know the difference between an executive, a manger and an administrator?
Ann: Iím afraid, I can hardly tell you the difference. I think these words are interchangeable
and they really arenít different in many companies.
Barbara: What about your company?
Ann: In our company the top officers are called administrators. The next highest group -
the vice-presidents, the heads of major departments and branch plant managers Ė
are executives like my boss.
Barbara: Is that all?
Ann: The group below consists of managers, they are general managers and foremen.
Barbara: So I see that an organization has a number of positions and some people have more
authority than others.
Ann: You are right.
Barbara: But it would be interesting to know more about the functions of an executive.
Ann: Iíd say he makes a lot of important decisions. He sets objectives, coordinates work,
delegates authority, makes hiring, firing, evaluating and just general leading.
Barbara: It seems to be important.
Ann: It is important. Itís evident that making careful decisions is the basis of good
Barbara: But do you work under much pressure?
Ann: Barbara, you know Iím quite used to working under pressure from my last job.
I am also accustomed to lots of paper work and red tape.
Barbara: Good for you.
Ann: And whatís more important I feel that I can learn a lot because my boss is competent.
Barbara: Good, I think weíd be in a hurry not to get late for the work.