A number of different terms are used for “manger”, including “director”, “administrator” and “president”. The term “manager” is used more frequently in profit-making organizations, while the others are used more widely in government and non-profit organizations such as universities, hospitals, and social work agencies.
What, then, is a manager?
When used collectively the term “management” refers to those people who are responsible for making and carrying out decisions within the system. An individual manager is a person who directly supervises people in an organization.
Some basic characteristics seem to apply to managers in all types of organizations; they include hard work on variety of activities, preference for active tasks, direct personal relationships.
Almost everything a manger does involves decisions. The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists. In decision-making there is always some uncertainty and risk.
Managing is a hard job. There is a lot to be done and relatively little time to do it. The engineer can finish a design on a particular day, and the lawyer can win or lose
A case at a certain time. But…
LEVELS AND AREAS OF MANAGEMENT
1. LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT
Each organization can be represented as a pyramid:
FIRST – LINE MANAGEMENT
A top manager is an upper-level executive who guides and controls the overall activities of the organization. Top managers constitute a small group. They are generally responsible for the organization’s planning and developing its mission. They also determine the firm’s strategy and its major policies. It takes years of hard work as well as talent and good luck to reach the ranks of good managers. They are president, vice-president, chief executive officer, and member of the Board.
A middle manager is a manger who implements the strategy and major policies handed down from the top level of the organization. Middle managers develop tactical plans, policies and standard operating procedures, and they coordinate and supervise the activities of first-line managers. Titles at the middle-management level include division manager, department head, plant manager, and operations manager.
A first-line manager is a manger who coordinates and supervises the activities of operating employees. First-line managers spend most of their time working with employees, answering questions, and solving day-to-day problems. Most first-line managers are former operating employees who, owing to their hard work and potential were promoted into management. Many of today’s middle and top managers began their careers on this first management level. Common titles for first-line managers include office manager, supervisor, foreman and project manager.
Operating employees are not managers. They are qualified and non-qualified persons working for the organization. For their labor or services they get salaries or wages. They represent the work force of the organization.