Theses “Problems of development and connections of world. Lecture N 2”.
1. A Law of mutual transition of quantitative changes in qualitative ones.
2. A Law of unity and fight of oppositions.
3. A Law of negation of negation.
H/T: independently - modern varieties of dialectics: on the textbooks after red.
I- 1. Quality is internal definiteness of thing in the range of scopes of its being, with the loss of which a thing stops its existing as given.
or: a summary of internal firm properties, that distinguish the object of thegiven class from the objects of another class.
Quality depends not only from properties, it is connected with a quantity.
I- 2. What definiteness of objects is fixed by quantity? Hegel saw here external definiteness to being of thing , i.e. intensity and distributing of object’s signs, which are shown in sizes and degrees, that can be measured by the proper units. A scientist-mathematician A.N. Colmogorov considers that the quantitative relations are characterized, unlike qualitative ones, only by the indifferent attitude toward concrete nature of those objects, which they link. Therefore they can be separated from their maintenance as for something indifferent for matter. (ÁÑÝ, Ò. 26, ñ. 476).
I- 3. Outside the given measure the character of qualitative changes exchanges with transition to another quality. I underline the fact that transition or influencing between quality and quantity (on each other) are mutual-depended.
Quantity Quality Quality 1 Quantity 1
are conditioned requires
I- 4.The qualitative change or violation of measure takes place by a leap, in spurts (saltatory). A leap is the interruption of gradualness, radical transformationof quality. But: it is, as a rule, regular transition At home you think about such questions: does a leap mean the break of natural connections? Is it possible to change a speed and rates of leap? Such types of leaps on duration are present:
1. slow (protracted): a formation of life on the Earth, of new types of plants and animals, of stars, of Planetary system, an evaporation of water from reservoir,
2. fast: a breakage of detail of machine - a «metal tired», a political revolution.
3. instantaneous: an explosion of bomb, a poetic lighting up.
Leaps differ after a scale: there are the global and local. We will compare: astrophysical, biological, personal... The following: the development has two forms:
1. An evolution – It is gradual quantitative changes or
2. A revolution is the interruption of gradualness, qualitative transformation. Thus revolution nowise is not the interruption of development, on the contrary, it is the most rapid (stormy) development. A catastrophe comes one of varieties of revolution: there are most sharp and destructive leaps in the nature and society, fraught with big damages, losses and disasters.
II- 1. To all phenomena, to the processes internal contradictions are peculiar, i. e. an opposite sides - interdependent and mutual denied. The fight of oppositions gives an internal impulse to development, leads to growth of contradictions and to decision of them on a certain stage in disappearance of old and origin of new.
II- 2. Aristotle is quite asserts that self- contradictory thought can not be true (simultaneously aren’t true diametrically opposite theses “A” and “not-A”). But in the life, in the real reality contradictions often take place and arise up not through the errors of discourse, but owing to the structure and internal organization of being.
II- 3. Dialectical and metaphysical oppositions are differed especially .
Metaphysical oppositions are those phenomena and things, which differ to each other artificially, mechanically; they are as though stood in position of contrasting, so to speak, after an external criterion.
The oppositions in general are such properties of objects (phenomena, processes), which take extreme places, maximum places (position data) on some scale.
Thus under dialectical oppositions are understood such sides and tendencies of one or another integral process, which simultaneously are linked (indissoluble ) and are mutually exclusive and interpenetrate each other, i. e., one without other can not exist (thus not only in different relation, but also in the same relation). Existence of one of them stipulates existence of another. They have the unique basis (unique nature) of origin and existence. It means that such oppositions interpenetrate and at certain terms - interturnone into another.
A black – a white, a day - a night,
a max - a min, a genius - a primitiveness, a good – an evil, a thick – a thin, a hare - a wolf, a waterfall - a volcanic eruption, an investigator - a criminal, a husband - a wife, a jogging shoes - a South African animal.
II- 4. Contradiction is opened out in three stages. The first stage is an origin: Contradiction exists in possibility only, with unimportant divergences. Future contradictions are yet only begin to show, haven’t turned out.
The second stage is a growth of contradictions: a display of substantial differences and polarization of forces.
And, finally, the third stage: a fight and decision ... (or some researchers differ the third stage as a fight here, and the forth stage as a decision of contradictions - separately): they are embodied, realized in a conflict - collision, liquidation are rich in content. –But, attention!!! a conflict and fight are understood not literally, not as physical death, but figuratively; rich in content collision of the opposite phenomena (instead of physical elimination, elimination from the face of the Earth) of the given oppositions and - a confluence in a new contradiction.
II- 5. Contradictions are hold on one selves in any case or are taken off in three results (by the three ways). 1) by a death of one opposition (then other opposition changes itself) or 2) by birth of another, new thing, phenomenon or process, or 3) way (result) is a complete elimination of the given thing.
Therefore for our normal development it is necessary conscious, systematic decisionof contradictions (desirably on the basis of scientific theory plus the orientation to all humanity’s values).
II –6. The character of contradiction depends on
1) on specific place of oppositions
2) on conditions of development of contradiction.
3) on a level of organization of the system. At conscious participation - optimum and dynamism of decision of contradiction are higher, range of alternatives in aggregate results is wider.
You need to understand the types of contradictions.
1. essential - inessential,
2. internal - external - at the place in the system
3. basic - nonbasic - to the role in development (a spirit - a body; a business qualities)
leading – inferiors (PF - PR: a man into PF and a technique)
4. Antagonism - no antagonism. (Zaichenco considered in 1995 yet: it is aimless, anachronism, although Nadolniy in 1997 used it: P. 247)
The forms of decision of contradictions: 1) - complete or partial (abandoned stone is valid for one occasion and complete decision of contradictions);
2) - valid for one occasion or step-by-step: socio-economic transformations in Ukraine are partial and step-by-step decision of contradiction).
III- 1. Negation of negation is the law of dialectics and expresses advancing, hereditary, cyclical character of development and it’s form - «a spiral» (not «a circle» and not « a straight (right) line”), reiterating on the higher stage some peculiar properties of lower stage, “allegedly returning no the old”. The development displays as process, which almost reiterates already traversed passed steps, but in another way, on the higher level.
The form of this development is “triads” itself.
1) an initial point, 2) it’s negation 3) negation of negation :
(Thesis – Antithesis - Synthesis, a theory – a practice – a new theory...)
Every cycle comes as a coil in development, and spiral is as a chain of cycles. Action of the given law turns out not in every moment, but only in integral, relatively completed process of development.
III –2. 1) Dialectics examines the systems (it is very important). And in the system the development is inevitable.
2) Generality means inevitability (?)
Firstly this law was formulated by whom? (as well as other laws of dialectics, and system of categories) – by Hegel. Any development is permanent negation of the present, attained state of spirit – by the following, ripening in it’s bowels state. So, Hegel emphasizes the development of Spirit.
H/T: an understanding of negation of negation by Hegel and by school of Marxism. Nadolniy P. 244, 249-252, Zaichenco P. 243-244. 1. what is it determined by? ( a determinacy)
2. where does operate? (a sphere of negation)
3. how, in what does it turns out (a form of negation)