2.3.3. Determine the service life in hours for the gearing:

t = L · 365 · K_{a }· 24 · K_{d},

where L is the service life in years; K_{a} is the annual utilization factor that takes into account use of the gearing during year; K_{d} is the daily utilization factor that takes into account use of the gearing for 24 hours. These parameters should be given in the specification for the course paper.

2.3.4. Determine the factor K_{HE }that reduces variable load conditions to the constant load equivalence.

K_{HE }= ,

where T_{max} and T_{i} are correspondingly maximum and acting torques; t_{i} is the time of action of the torque T_{i}.

If the time of action of the torque is less than 0.03·t this torque should not be taken into account.

2.3.5. Determine the equivalent number of cycles for the pinion and the gear.

= 60×n^{p}×c×t×K_{HE },

= 60×n^{g}×c×t×K_{HE },

where n^{p}^{ }and n^{g} are correspondingly rotational speeds of the pinion and the gear; c is the number of gears meshing with the gear being analyzed. In our case c=1.

2.3.6. Determine the durability factor for the pinion and for the gear.

if N_{HE }≥ N_{HO }then K_{HL}=1,

if N_{HE }< N_{HO }then K_{HL}= .

2.3.7. Determine the safety factor S_{H} for the pinion and for the gear.

- for homogeneous structure of the material

(heat treatment is normalizing, martempering and full hardening) S_{H }= 1.1;

- for heterogeneous structure of the material

(heat treatment is surface hardening, case hardening, nitriding) S_{H}=1.2.

2.3.8. Determine the contact allowable stresses for the gear and for the pinion

, .

If H^{p}-H^{g} 70BHN we assume as the design allowable contact stress the less magnitude of above calculated stresses, where H^{p} and H^{g} are correspondingly hardness of the pinion and gear materials.

Otherwise, the design allowable contact stress is determined by the following formula

.

2.4. Determine the allowable bending stresses of the pinion and for the gear.

2.4.1 . Determine the limits of the bending endurance for the pinion and for the gear . For this purpose we use table 2.1.

2.4.2. Determine the base number of stress cycles _{ }.

For steels _{ }= 4∙10^{6}.

2.4.3. Determine the factor K_{bE} that reduces variable load conditions to the constant load equivalence.

K_{bE} = ,

where k=3 for toothed wheels with hardness H ≤ 350 BHN . If H > 350 BHN k=9.

2.4.4. Determine the equivalent number of cycles for the pinion and the gear.

= 60×n^{p}×c×t×K_{bE} ,

= 60×n^{g}×c×t×K_{bE} .

2.4.5. Determine the durability factor for the pinion and for the gear.

if N_{bE} ≥ N_{bO} then K_{bL}=1,

if N_{bE} < N_{bO} then K_{bL}= ,

where m=3 for toothed wheels with hardness H ≤ 350 BHN and m=9 if H > 350 BHN.

2.4.6. Determine the safety factor S_{b} for the pinion and for the gear.

- for wheels made of forged blanks (our case) S_{b} = 1.75;

- for wheels made of cast blanks S_{b} = 2.3.

2.4.7. Determine the bending allowable stresses for the gear and for the pinion

, .

For further calculations we assume as the design allowable bending stress the less magnitude of above calculated stresses.

CLASSIFICATION OF UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

GASES

FLUIDS

NATURAL PHENOMENA

Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Air
Smoke

Water
Oil
Milk
Soup
Ink

Electricity
Heat
Darkness
Sunshine
Weather

MATERIALS WITH PARTICLES TOO SMALL
TO BE COUNTED

FIELDS OF
ACADEMIC STUDY

ABSTRACT IDEAS,
IDEALS, MODES OF
BEHAVIOUR,
EMOTIONS

Dirt
Dust
Flour
Rice
Salt
Sand
Grass
Hair

Chemistry
Economics
Mathematics
Physics
History
Philosophy
Psychology
Biology

Bravery
Courage
Happiness
Honesty
Love
Luck
Enjoyment
Relaxation
Fun
Laughter
Peace

OTHER INTANGIBLES

Ignorance
Intelligence
Trouble
Work
Stupidity
Admiration

The Earth the planet on which we live

The earth revolves around the sun

The land surface on which we live and move

For 20 minutes the earth shook.

Earth the opposite of heaven

Man’s life on earth is short.

the substance on the land surface

Beyond the trees were clumps of rock and earth.

All other planets are without the article: Jupiter, Mars, Venus, etc.

Practice

Said one termite to another: I prefer floor to wall.

1. ________ house we bought is _________ large house. It is ________ old house in __________ country. It has _________ beautiful kitchen. __________ yard is big enough for _______ garden.

2. _______ man and ______ woman were created equal.

3. This building does not have ________ 15^{th} floor.

4. We need a student advisor with ________ knowledge of English.

5. I would love to have ______ house in ________ mountains and another one at _________ seaside.

6. Have you seen the movie “The Passion of _________ Christ”?

7. When he walked _____ arm in _________ arm with her, he felt _________ tenderness that he had never felt before.

8. ________ house in ________ country is usually cheaper than ________ house in __________ city.

9. __________ Hudson Bay is much bigger than __________ Bay of Fundy.

10. This is ________ means to enable me to get a better job.

11. I have _______ peace within me that I never had.