A distinguishing trait of Kazakh culture is a highly developed instrumental music tradition. Pure instrumental folk music genres are most often found among peoples who have led a nomadic livestock-breeding life style over much of their history, as have the Kazakhs, Kirghiz, Turkmen, Karakalpak and other nationalities. United by the same Turkish language group, these cultures had much in common. They shared similar religious ideas and coinciding folk customs, wedding festivals and funeral ceremonies; and their instrumental music became a single musical culture. The Kazakh kui is a programmatic piece, distinguished by its shirt length of only two to three minutes and containing specific structural patterns. Each small-form kui exposes only one musical pattern and presents only one mood. It does not include contrast. Content varies. Some pass the kuishi's philosophical thinking about the meaning of life. Dauletkerei's “Zhiger” (Energy), Kazangap's “Kokil” (Melody of My Soul) and Usen-Tore's “Otting Dunie Ketting Dunie” (My time Has Passed) etc. Others present subtle psychological portraits of individuals, such as Kurmangazi's “Turemurat” (Murat from the clan of Tore), Mamen's “Aksholpan” and Dina's “Asem Konir”. A tried type of kui sings the beauty of the wide steppes and the motherland as in Kurmangazi's “Sari-Arka”, Tattimbet's “Sarzhailau”. Many kuis relate important events in the life of folk musicians as Kurmangazi's “Aman bol sheshem, aman bol’ (Goodby Mama, Goodby), Tattimbet's “Kokei Kesti” (The Secret). A separate group includes kuis dedicated to animals and birds as “Boz Ingen” (The Camel), “Telkonir” (a horse's name), “Konir Kaz” (Gray Goose) and “Akku” (The Swan). Kuis represent a complex and multifaceted picture of the nomad world.
Kazakh music instruments. During the nineteenth and into the early twentieth centry, the Kazakh music culture included three instrumental traditions, that of sybyzgy, the kobyz and the dombra. All these instruments were popular among people, they used to play them in far away pastures, at large clan celebrations and even in the yurts of Kazakh sultans. Only Kobyz belonged to selected people. It was considered a sacred instrument. The Dombra was the favourite instrument of the Kazakhs. Dombra kuis passed from generation to generation, relating the life experience of the nation and passing on its knowledge about nature and humankind. Kuis reflected many historical events, thus playing a dicisive role in Kazakh life. The art of playing the dombra included two styles as tokpe (Western Kazakhstan) and shertpe (Eastern, Central and South Kazakhstan) kuis. Western tokpe kuis reflect sharp dramatic events, characterized by rough, strong patterns. The Eastern Kazakhstan shertpe kui tradition is characterized by song compositions and percussive fingering. Shertpe kuis contain psychological portrayals, expressions of deep human experience and elegant, graceful, feminine patterns.
Kazakh traditional instrumental music is programmatic in character. In earlier times, before playing a kui, the musician related the story in oral story-telling tradition. The story and the music were artistically equal. Listeners evaluated skill of the musician for playing quality, improvisational talent and ability with words.
The traditional instrumental music culture continues to develop today. Its development is undergoing great changes, due to changing conditions in life style and performance.
Tasks on the theme:
1. Define the term “kui”.
2. Tell us about the main types of kuis and their contents.
3. Discuss the leading instrumental traditions.
4. Tell how story and music correlated with each other in different kuis.
PART XII: SPORTS AND GAMES
ASIAN GAMES (ASIADS)
Asian Games (Asiads) are international sport tournaments. They are held everó four years among sportsmen from Asia. Another name for Asian Games are Asiads. The history of the Games goes bañk to India where the first Asiad took plañe in 1951. There are two types of Asian Games: summer and winter ones. The Summer Asian Games were held 16 times, the Winter Asian Games 6 times before now. The Olympic Council of Asia manages Asian Games. Every Games have their own motto, flag, anthem and emblem. Kazakhstan has been taking part in Asian Games since 1996.
The Republic of Kazakhstan was the organizer of the 7-th Asian Winter Games. Sportsmen from 26 Asian countries took part in the Games (January, 30 – February, 6, 2011). 11 sport events were held in Astana and Almaty. Kazakhstan, the winner of the 7-th Asian Games, has got 70 medals: 32gold, 21 silver and 17 bronze.We are proud of our country and its sportsmen.
Ø Put the correct numbers into the gaps in the sentences:
26 70 1996 1951 11
1. The history of the Games goes bañk to India where the first Asiada took plañe in ….
2. Kazakhstan has been taking part in Asian Games since ….
3. Sportsmen from … Asian countries took part in the Games
4. Kazakhstan, the winner of the 7-th Asian Games, has got … medals.
Ø Answer the questions:
1. How often are Asiads held?
2. What do every Games have?
3. Since when has Kazakhstan been taking part in Asian Games?
4. How many medals has Kazakhstan won?
5. We are proud our sportsmen, aren’t we?
Ø Put the correct preposition from the following list:
in of among since
1. Kazakhstan has been taking part in Asian Games … 1996.
2. 11 sport events were held … Astana and Almaty.
3. We are proud … our country and its sportsmen.
4. They are held everó four years … sportsmen from Asia.