Home Random Page


CATEGORIES:

BiologyChemistryConstructionCultureEcologyEconomyElectronicsFinanceGeographyHistoryInformaticsLawMathematicsMechanicsMedicineOtherPedagogyPhilosophyPhysicsPolicyPsychologySociologySportTourism






SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION

To find information on the Web, you may need to use a search engine. A search engine is a piece of software that gives you the ability to search for Internet resources. Search engines are usually accessed through Web browser software. Each search engine provides different searching options and has its own look. Search engines also differ greatly in the number of resources they allow you to search. Some search engines have both searching and browsing capabilities. The major search engines are Google, Yahoo and Yandex.

If you want to promote your website in the search results of the major search engines, you should use SEO (search engine optimization). Search engine optimization is the process of improving the volume and quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via “natural” (“organic” or “algorithmic”) search results. Usually, the earlier a site is presented in the search results, or the higher it “ranks,” the more searchers will visit that site. SEO can also target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, and industry-specific vertical search engines.

As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work and what people search for. Optimizing a website primarily involves editing its content and HTML coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines.

The acronym “SEO” can also refer to “search engine optimizers”, a term adopted by an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients, and by employees who perform SEO services in-house. Search engine optimizers may offer SEO as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site, SEO tactics may be incorporated into web site development and design. The term “search engine friendly” may be used to describe web site designs, menus, content management systems and shopping carts that are easy to optimize.

The leading search engines use crawlers to find pages for their algorithmic search results. Pages that are linked from other search engine indexed pages do not need to be submitted because they are found automatically. Some search engines operate a paid submission service that guarantee crawling for either a set fee or cost per click. Search engine crawlers may look at a number of different factors when crawling a site. Not every page is indexed by the search engines. Distance of pages from the root directory of a site may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled.

To avoid undesirable content in the search indexes, webmasters can instruct spiders not to crawl certain files or directories through the standard robots.txt file in the root directory of the domain. Additionally, a page can be explicitly excluded from a search engine’s database by using a meta tag specific to robots. When a search engine visits a site, the robots.txt located in the root directory is the first file crawled. The robots.txt file is then parsed, and will instruct the robot as to which pages are not to be crawled. As a search engine crawler may keep a cached copy of this file, it may on occasion crawl pages a webmaster does not wish crawled. Pages typically prevented from being crawled include login specific pages such as shopping carts and user-specific content such as search results from internal searches. In March 2007, Google warned webmasters that they should prevent indexing of internal search results because those pages are considered search spam.



SEO techniques can be classified into two broad categories: techniques that search engines recommend as part of good design, and those techniques of which search engines do not approve. The search engines attempt to minimize the effect of the latter, among them spamdexing. Industry commentators have classified these methods, and the practitioners who employ them, as either white hat SEO, or black hat SEO. White hats tend to produce results that last a long time, whereas black hats anticipate that their sites may eventually be banned either temporarily or permanently once the search engines discover what they are doing.

An SEO technique is considered white hat if it conforms to the search engines’ guidelines and involves no deception. As the search engine guidelines are not written as a series of rules or commandments, this is an important distinction to note. White hat SEO is not just about following guidelines, but is about ensuring that the content a search engine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see. White hat advice is generally summed up as creating content for users, not for search engines, and then making that content easily accessible to the spiders, rather than attempting to trick the algorithm from its intended purpose. White hat SEO is in many ways similar to web development that promotes accessibility, although the two are not identical.

Black hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines, or involve deception. One black hat technique uses a text that is hidden, either as a text colored similar to the background or positioned off screen. Another method gives a different page depending on whether the page is being requested by a human visitor or a search engine, a technique known as cloaking.

Search engines may penalize sites they discover using black hat methods, either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their databases altogether. Such penalties can be applied either automatically by the search engines’ algorithms, or by a manual site review.

 

Comprehension check. Match the beginnings of the sentences in the first column with the endings in the second.

1. To find information on the Web 2. Search engine optimizers may offer 3. The term “search engine friendly” may be used 4. One black hat technique uses text that is hidden, 5. Search engines may penalize sites they discover using black hat methods, 6. Distance of pages from the root directory of a site a) may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled. b) either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their databases altogether. c) either as text colored similar to the backgrounds. d) to describe Web site designs, menus, content management systems and shopping carts that are easy to optimize. e) as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign. f) you may need to use a search engine.

 

Vocabulary practice

1. Fill in the blanks in the sentences with the necessary word(s); all the letters of the word(s) are given on the right.

1. A search engine is a piece of … that gives you the ability to search for Internet resources. E T A O F W T R S
2. The term “search engine friendly” may be used to describe Web site designs, menus, content … systems and shopping carts that are easy to optimize. A G T E E M A M N N
3. To avoid … content in the search indexes, web-masters can instruct spiders not to crawl certain files E L D U E I R N S A B
4. SEO … can be classified into two broad categories. Q E S T U I N H C E
5. Black hat SEO … to improve rankings in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines, or involve deception. T A T S M T P E
6. Search engines may … sites they discover using black hat methods. E P Z E A N L I

2. Fill in the blanks choosing from the variants given.

1. If you want to promote your … in the search results of the major search engines, you should use SEO.

a) computer b) host c) website d) disk

2. Such programs usually guarantee inclusion in the …, but do not guarantee specific ranking within the search results.

a) index b) database c) code d) charter

3. To avoid undesirable content in the search indexes, … can instruct spiders net to crawl certain files or directories.

a) workers b) admins c) customers d) webmasters

4. Black hat SEO attempts to improve … in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines.

a) rankings b) costs c) velocity d) quality

 

3. Match the beginnings and the endings of the description given and put them into correct order.

1. As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers. 2. The leading search engines use crawlers 3. In March 2007, Google warned webmasters that they 4. An SEO technique is considered white hat if 5. Black hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways 6. Search engines may penalize sites they discover a) using black hat methods, either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their database. b) that are disapproved of by the search engines, or involve deception. c) it conforms to the search engines guidelines and involves no deception. d) should prevent indexing of internal search results because those pages are spam. e) to find pages for their algorithmic search results. f) how search engines work and what people search for.

 

 

4. Fill in the gaps in the text.

Webmasters and content providers began ___ sites for search engines in the mid-1990s, as the first search engines were cataloging the early Web. Initially, all a webmaster needed to do was submit a page, or URL, to the various engines which would send a spider to “crawl” that page, extract links to other pages from it, and return information found on the page to be ___. The process involves a search engine spider downloading a ___ and storing it on the search engine’s own server, where a second program, known as an indexer, extracts various information about the page, such as the words it contains and where they are located, as well as any weight for specific ___, as well as any and all links the page contains, which are then placed into a scheduler for crawling at a later date.

Site owners started to recognize the value of having their sites highly ranked and visible in search engine ___, creating an opportunity for both white hat and black ___ SEO practitioners. According to industry analyst Danny Sullivan, the earliest known use of the phrase search ___ optimization was a spam message posted on Usenet on July 26, 1997.

 

Critical thinking. Read the article and express your opinion on the problem.


Date: 2015-01-12; view: 929


<== previous page | next page ==>
THE WORLD WIDE WEB | Censorship on the Web
doclecture.net - lectures - 2014-2024 year. Copyright infringement or personal data (0.01 sec.)