1 Match the words to make collocations and give their definitions.
1) greenhouse a) growth
2) recycling b) warming
3) population c) effect
4) climate d) disasters
5) groundwater e) rain
6) environmental f) pollution
7) alternative g) changes
8) global h) sources
9) acid i) problems
10) natural j) energy
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ,7 , 8 , 9 ,10
2 Dicsuss in pairs or in small groups the following statements.
· 10 ways how to save our planet
· What is your greatest environmental concern, and why?
· What sources of energy are the most environmentally friendly?
· What should governments do to tackle pollution?
3 Prepare some interesting news connected with environmental protection.
Use different sources e.g. the latest news , the Internet, newspaper articles or professional
magazines. Present the news briefly and discuss it in the class.
4 Match the following words with their definitions.
1. deforestation a. the act or process of increasing in size,
range, amount, etc.
2. mitigation b. the process when sth becomes or
is made to become an acid
3. unequivocal c. a layer of soil that is permanently
frozen, in very cold areas
4. expansion d. the application of geosciences, where
mechanics, mathematics, physics,
chemistry and geology are used to
understand and shape our interaction
with the earth
5. geoengineering e. having one clear or definite meaning
6. permafrost f. the act of cutting down or burning
trees in the area
7. precipitation g. to moderate (a quality or condition) in
force or intensity to become milder
8. acidification h. chemical process in which solid
material is separated from a liquid
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8
5 Read the following article.
Global warming is the rise in the average of Earth´s atmosphere and oceans since late 19th century and its projected continuation. Since the early 20th century, Earth´s mean surface temperature has increased by about 0.8o C (1.4oF), with about two-thirds of the increase occuring since 1980. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain that it is primarily caused by increasing concentration of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.
Climate model projections were summarized in the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). They indicated that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9oC (2 to 5.2oF) for their lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4oC (4.3 to 11.5oF) for their highest.
The ranges of these estimates arise from the use of models with differing sensitivity to greenhouse gas concentrations.
Future warming and related changes will vary from region around the globe. The effects of an increase in global temperature include a rise in sea levels and a change in the amount and patterns of precipitation, as well as a probable expansion of subtropical deserts.
Warming is expected to be strongest in the Artic and would be associated with the continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice.
Other likely effects of the warming include a more frequent occurrence of extreme-weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfalls, ocean acidification and species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes. Effects significant to humans include the threat to food security from decreasing crop yields and the loss of habitat from inundation.
Proposal policy responses mitigation by emissions reduction, adaptation to its effects, and possible future geoengineering.
6 Decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).
1. The increase of surface temperature started in 1980.
2. The climate models are based on the data of greenhouse concentrations.
3. The main reasons of the effects of the warming are changes in temperature.
4. The mentioned effects can cause a lack of food for humans.
5. In future emissions will be completely reduced.
7 Make your own sentences using the words given in the text in bold.
For example: Many foreign expeditions have tried to find the ways how to retreat the
glaciers in the Arctic.
8 Match the words from the text with their synonyms.
1) increase a) little or no rain
2) primarily b) connected, linked
3) to indicate c) place of occurrence
4) range d) mainly
5) estimate e) growth
6) related f) recession
7) pattern g) to show, to point to
8) retreat h) scheme, way
9) drought i) variety
10) habitat j) judgement, guess, assessment
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10
9 Choose the suitable expression for each sentence.
1. People are becoming more concerned environmental matters.
a) in b) to c) on d) about
2. Many species of wildlife could become .if left unprotected.
a) endangered b) in danger c) extinct d) dangerous
3. In some cities a poisonous smog is created .. car exhaust fumes.
a) from b) by c) to d) of
4. ..-exploitation of fossil fuels such as coal and oil will lead to an energy crisis.
a) Re b) Over c) Non d) Un
5. Factories often dispose .. waste products in rivers and the sea.
a) on b) - c) of d) off
6. The indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other chemicals has .
sources of groundwater.
a) destroyed b) devastated c) vanished d) abolished
7. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged
water bodies e.g. lakes, rivers, aquifers and groundwater.
a) with b) in c) into d) out of
8. Cities with sanitary sewer overflows or combined sewer overflows employ one or more
engineering approaches reduce discharges of untreated sewage.
a) to b) for c) from d) at
9. Sampling of water for physical or chemical testing can be done by several methods,
depending .. the accuracy needed and the characteristics of the contaminant.
a) in b) on c) with d) to
10.Retention basins tend to be less effective .. reducing temperature, as the water may be
heated by the sun before being discharged to a receiving stream.
a) at b) in c) with d) for
10 Read the following text and fill it with appropriate forms of words given in brackets.
Facts about drinking water
Drinking water is such a vital and .(fundamentalism) part of our lives that we have a tendency to take for granted that our water is safe to drink.
· Water . (consume) has almost doubled in the last 50 years. A child born in the developed world consumes 30 to 50 times the water resources of one in the (develop) world.
· Water supplies are falling while the demand is (drama) growing at an
unsustainable rate. Over the next 20 years, the average supply of water worldwide per person is expected to drop by a third.
· Over 1.5 billion people lack ready access to drinking water, and, if current consumption patterns continue, at least 3.5 billion people nearly half the world´s projected (populate) will live in water stressed rivers basins in just 20 years.
· Drinking water . (contaminate) is a growing problem worldwide and dwindling freshwater resources are under .(increase) pressure due to pollution and population (grow).
· Water .. (purify) is necessary due to many factors of pollution such as manufacturing, .. (agriculture) accidental and consumer pollution. Some common sources of water pollution include :
- surface runoff from farms, businesses and paved surfaces
- excess of nutrients pumped into waters
- discharge of used water into waters
- acid rain
- underground storage tank . (leak)
- discharge of used chemicals into waters
- discharge of industry by-products into waters
- toxic . (contaminate) form underground storage tanks
- bacteria, viruses and parasites
- wasteful use of water.
11 Create adjectives from the following words.
12 Create nouns from the following verbs.
expect - ............
grow - ....
Chemical vs. Biological Wastewater Treatment (Part 1)
13 Listen to the recording and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F).
Correct the false ones.
1. In the resulting wastewater we have collected organic matter and nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrate.
2. These problems are actually caused by an unnaturally high consumption of oxygen, but if nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen are discharged into a water, they provide food source for algae and plankton.
3. At other locations a discharge of phosphorus and nitrogen could cause intensive damage to the environment since it can initiate biological growth.
4. Since only one-third of the organics will be removed by this process, biological or chemical purification is supplemented in order to meet increased requirements.
5. Let´s compare these methods. We stopped them at the same time and discovered that chemical precipitation cleans the water very rapidly, less than fifty minutes after the indication of the process.
14 Listen to the recording again, this time follow the parts of the transcription
and fill in the missing words.
1. The organic matter immediately starts to consume in the water,
resulting in an oxygen deficiency, which leads to the deaths of fish.
2. This new biomass is in fact an organic matter and . this, we
have an additional .. of oxygen.
3. It is therefore of vital that the regulations for discharge permits and
choice of purification methods comply with the . prerequisites.
4. This is a simple process when large .. sink to the bottom and formed
5. We have cleaned water with a biological process. It would take . hours to
obtain the same result. The biological . lasts a comparatively long time.
LISTENING COMPREHENSION - WRITING
Chemical vs. Biological Wastewater Treatment (Part 2)
15 Watch the video, listen to it carefully and make notes. Watch the video twice.
Write a short summary about the content of the video. ( approx.50 words)
VOCABULARY - REVISION
16 This crossword will help you learn some new words or revise those that you should already know.
Across 2. the most abundant element in the universe; it can be used as a fuel source 5. energy that can be reused an infinite number of times 6. a period of time that is different from the others because of particular characteristics or events 7. a car that uses a combination of electricity and gasoline 8. an interdependent community of organisms including plants, animals, water, air and the ground 9. the term given to food sold in supermarkets and grown without synthetic fertilizers, chemicals and antibiotics10. another name for buyers; they can influence what products are carried in stores Down 1. the most abundant energy capable of being harnessed by humans3. the name given to gasses that trap heat and cause global warming4. one of the factors that causes global warming, desertification
17 Fill the gaps with the correct derived form of the word on the right.
Mercury in Fish: Does Eating Seafood Help or Harm Your Health?