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Computer Engineering


1. Translate the following definitions and memorize the terms:

hardware (n) - the machines, wiring and other physical components of a computer or other electronic system: processing hardware, storage hardware;
integrated circuit (n) - an electronic circuit formed on a small piece of semiconducting material: circuit board, circuit diagram, printed circuit (board);
computer (n) - an electronic device (machine) which is used for storing data, organizing and finding words, numbers and pictures, for doing calculations and for controlling other machines;
central processing unit (n) - the part of a computer in which operations are controlled and executed;
input device (n) - a piece of computer equipment such as a keyboard which enables you to put information into a computer;
memory-storage device(n) - the part of a computer in which data or program instructions can be stored for retrieval;
bus (n) - a distinct set of conductors carrying data and control signals within a computer system, to which pieces of equipment may be connected in parallel;
mainframe (n) - a large high-speed computer, especially one supporting numerous workstations or peripherals;
software (n) - the collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do: system software, application software;
operating system (n) chassis (n) semiconductor (n) digitization (n) - the system software that allows all the hardware and software components to work together. It consists of a set of programs that manages all the computer's resources, including the data in main memory and in auxiliary storage. the frame, base of a device, equipment or a vehicle onto which the metal covering is fixed;   a material, such as silicon, which allows electricity to move through it more easily when its temperature increases, or an electronic device made from this material;   the process of putting information into digital form, usually so that it can be processed by a digital computer.


software (n) operating system (n) bug (n) - the collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do: system software, application software;   the system software that allows all the hardware and software components to work together; a set of programs that manages all the computer's resources;   an error in a computer program or system;
computer programmer (n) - a person whose job involves writing programs for computers;


debugging (n) - is the process of identifying and removing errors from computer hardware or software;  
disk operating system (n) - a computer operating system that controls and manages files and programs stored on disk; DOS is a shorthand term for several closely related operating systems (MS-DOS, PC DOS, DR-DOS, etc.) that dominated the IBM PC compatible market;  
flowchart (n) graphical user interface (n) LINUX (n) - a graphical representation of a computer program in relation to its sequence of functions;   a visual way of interacting with a computer using items such as windows, icons, and menus, used by most modern operating systems;   an operating system modeled on Unix, whose source code is publicly available at no charge;  
program (n) - a set of instructions that a computer follows in order to perform a particular task;  
schedule (n) - a plan for carrying out a process or procedure, giving lists of intended events and times;  
eliminate (v)   file (n) server (n) - completely remove or get rid of something;   holder, cover, case, box, etc. for keeping data;   a computer or computer program which manages access to a centralized resource or service in a network;  
UNIX (n) - a computer operating system developed in 1969 by K. Thompson and D. Ritchie; today is used to describe any operating system that conforms to Unix standards, meaning the core operating system operates the same as the original Unix operating system;


portable (adj) - having the ability to run on a variety of computers (portable software) without reference to a particular type of hardware; small and lightweight, able to be easily carried or moved (hardware);  
chipset (n) - a highly integrated circuit on the motherboard of a computer that controls many of its data transfer functions;  
docking station (n) - a device used to connect one appliance to another, esp. a portable computer and a desktop computer, to make use of its external power supply, monitor, and keyboard, esp. to enable the transfer of data between the machines;  
pen computing (n) - a computer system employing a user-interface using a pointing device plus handwriting recognition as the primary means for interactive user input;  
smartphone (n) - a mobile telephone with computer features that may enable it to interact with computerized systems, send e-mails, and access the web;  
touchscreen (n) - a visual display unit screen that allows the user to give commands to the computer by touching parts of the screen instead of using the keyboard;  
omit (v) - to neglect to do or include;  
stylus (n) - an electronic I/O device that is used to draw or write on the screen;  
slot (n) - performance (n) - or expansion slot, a spare space on the system board of a computer to which expansion boards can be fitted; the action or process of carrying out or accomplishing an action, task, or function;  
general-purpose (adj) - having a range of uses or applications; not restricted to one function;  
optical disc (n) - an inflexible disc on which information is stored in digital form by laser technology;  
consistency (n) - agreement or harmony between parts of something complex; compatibility;  
configuration (n) pointing stick (n) flip (adj) - the particular choice of hardware items and their interconnection that make up a particular computer system;   an isometric joystick used as a pointing device. It was invented by research scientist Ted Selker and now it is present on many brands of laptops;   an electronics form factor which is in two or more sections that fold via a hinge.


artificial language (n) - an invented language, especially one intended as an international medium of communication or for use with computers;  
specification (n) - a detailed description of the criteria for the constituents, construction, performance, etc., of a material, apparatus or of the standard of workmanship required in its manufacture;  
abstraction (n) - the process of formulating generalized ideas or concepts by extracting common qualities from specific examples;  
modification (n) - a small change or adjustment;  
programming language (n) - a simple language system designed to facilitate the writing of computer programs;  
syntax (n) - a systematic statement of the rules governing the grammatical arrangement of words and morphemes in a language;  
semantics (n) - the study of the relationships between signs and symbols and what they represent;


concept (n) - a general idea or notion that corresponds to some class of entities and that consists of the characteristic or essential features of the class;  
context (n) - the conditions and circumstances that are relevant to an event, fact, etc.;  
novice (n) - a person who is new to or inexperienced in a certain task, situation, etc.;  
convergence (n) - the combining of different forms of electronic technology, such as data processing and word processing converging into information processing;  
predictability (n) - the state of knowing what something is like, when something will happen, etc.


networking (n) - the interconnection of two or more networks in different places;  
specification (n) - a detailed description of the criteria for the construction, appearance, performance, etc., of a material, apparatus, standard etc.;  
peer-to-peer (adj.) - (P2P) designed so that computers can send information directly to one another without passing through a centralized server;  
Point-to-Point Protocol (n) - (PPP), a data link protocol commonly used to establish a direct connection between two networking nodes. It provides connection authentication and transmission encryption privacy;  
High-Level Data Link Control (n) - (HDLC) a bit-oriented synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the ISO. HDLC provides both connection-oriented and connectionless service and can be used for point to multipoint connections, but is now used almost exclusively to connect one device to another;


frame relay (n) - a standardized wide area network technology that specifies the physical and logical link layers of digital telecommunications channels using a packet switching methodology;  
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (n) - (ATM) an electronic digital data transmission technology that is implemented as a network protocol and was first developed in the mid 1980s to transport real-time video, audio, image files, text;  
sensitive information (n) - confidential data;  
intranet (n) - an internal network that makes use of internet technology;  
extranet (n) - an intranet that is modified to allow outsiders access to it, esp. one belonging to a business that allows access to customers;  
precursor (n) - a person or thing that precedes and shows or announces someone or something to come;    
coaxial cable (n) - a cable consisting of an inner insulated core of stranded or solid wire surrounded by an outer insulated flexible wire braid, used esp. as a transmission line for radio-frequency signals.


content (n) dimension (n) encompass (v) manipulate (v) differentiate (v) application (n) - information resources (entry) or filling of web servers;   a measurement of the size of something in a particular direction, such as the length, width, height, or diameter Syn. measurement;   to enclose within a circle; surround Syn. include;   to handle or use, esp with some skill, in a process or action;   1) to serve to distinguish between ; 2) to perceive, show, or make a difference (in or between); discriminate;   1) a computer program that is written and designed for a specific need or purpose; 2) applying to a particular purpose or use;


discrete (adj) setting (n) approximation(n) sample (n) manifold (adj) conjunction (n) mesh (n) via (prep) standalone (adj)   separate or distinct in form or concept;   1) the surroundings in which something is set; scene; 2) the scenery, properties, or background, used to create the location for a stage play, film, etc;   the process or result of making a rough calculation, estimate, or guess;   a small part of anything, intended as representative of the whole; specimen;   1) of several different kinds; multiple: manifold reasons; 2) having many different forms, features, or elements: manifold breeds of dog;   1) the act of joining together; combination; union; 2) simultaneous occurrence of events; coincidence;   a network; net;   by way of; by means of; through;   (of a device or system) capable of operating independently of any other device or system.


content (n) - information resources (entry) or filling of web servers;  
deliver (v) - to carry (transfer) and distribute (goods, mail, etc.) to several places;  
linear (adj) - relating to a line or to length, resembling, represented by, or consisting of a line or lines, having one dimension;  
interactivity (n) - a state allowing or relating to continuous two-way transfer of information between a user and the central point of a communication system (computer or television);  
enhance (v) - to intensify or increase in quality, value, power, etc.;  
convey (v) - to carry, or transport from one place to another, to communicate (a message, information, etc.);  
haptic (adj) - relating to or based on the sense of touch;  
feature (n) - a typical quality or an important part of something;  
blend (v) - to mix or mingle components together thoroughly;


volatile (adj) - inconstant, unsteady, lasting only a short time; (of a memory) not retaining stored information when the power supply is cut off;  
convergence (n) - the combining of different forms of electronic technology, such as data processing and word processing converging into information processing;  
predictability (n) - the state of knowing what something is like, when something will happen, etc.


access (v) - a) to obtain or retrieve (information) from a storage device;
b) to place (information) in a storage device: direct access, sequential access;


allocate (v) - to assign or allot for a particular purpose;  
chunk (n) - a considerable amount: chunk of data;  
customize (v) - to modify (something) according to a customer's individual requirements;  
destine (v) - to appoint for something, intend, design;  
encode (v) - to convert (characters and symbols) into a digital form as a series of impulses;
eventually (adv) - a) at the very end, finally; b) (as sentence modifier) after a long time or long delay: Eventually, he arrived.  
handle (v) - to deal with or treat in a specified way;  
medium (n) - an intervening substance for transmitting data: automated data medium, data input medium, data medium, interactive medium, transmission medium;  
merge (v) - to blend or cause to blend, fuse;  
regardless (adv) - in spite of everything;  
restrict (v) - to confine or keep within certain often specified limits or selected bounds;  
router (n) - a device that allows packets of data to be moved efficiently between two points on a network: communications router, router ID, router identifier;  
stack (n) - a) an area in a computer memory for temporary storage; b) a set; c)data structure: hardware stack, hidden stack, instruction stack;  
stream(n) - continuous moving: bit stream, data stream, input stream, output stream;  

Date: 2015-01-12; view: 2191

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