Future time clauses begin with time words such as when, as soon as, after, before, until, and while. Do not use the future tense in the time clause.
· I’ll come home when I finish work.
· You must wait here until your results are ready.
· As soon as I read the article, I'll help you with your homework.
XII. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1. When the manager arrives, they _____ (start) the meeting.
2. When he _____ (run) one of the most successful businesses in the Silicon Valley, he dressed informally and his office was an open cubicle that looked like everyone else’s.
3. When IBM _____ (release) its first personal computer in 1981, Alpert _____ (buy) the first two models.
4. While he _____ (work) with these pioneers of computer engineering, he _____ (learn) many things about computers and business management.
5. A Frenchman named Benedictus (introduce) the idea of making safe tiny glass in 1903 after he (discover) a chemical that held broken glass together.
5. Whenever the inventor ______ (work) on an innovation, he withdrew to his house because he didn’t want to be disturbed.
7. When computers are not working, it is inevitable that work _____ (delay).
8. I will have to finish the reports before the manager _____ ( call ).
9. _____ ( not forget) to call your manager about the sales as soon as you get to the hotel.
XIII. Time adverbs help us to be more aware of time in the sentence. Complete the short passages using the time adverbs given in the box. Some of them can be used several times.
For, by, in, now, during, ago, over, before, recently,
As you know, we first got the idea for the new product a year ___(1) ___ , but ___(2) ___ we could go to market with it, there was a lot of work to do.
___(3) ___ six months the product was in development at our research center. We then ran tests (4) ____ a three-month period. ___(5) ___ that time we also conduct interviews with some of our best customers to find out what they wanted from the product. ____(6) ___ March we were finally ready for the launch.
___(1)___ the past, technology transfer was generally viewed as the transfer of machinery and equipment from the producer to the user, through trade, aid and licensing or foreign direct investment. ___(2)____ it has been shown that such transactions involve technology payments and that technology is embedded in social and political institutions that affect technology absorption. Also, it is ___(3)___ evident that technology can only be absorbed by the recipient country if there is some level of domestic capacity.
___(1)___ the next 15 years, production of ethanol increased from 0.6 billion liters __(2)__ 1975 to 11 billion liters ___(3)___ 1990. ___(4)___ the first phase of the program in 1975–1978, one part of ethanol was added to four parts of gasoline and there was an additional processing stage to remove water from the fuel. ___ (5)___ 1979, production had been streamlined to focus on hydrous ethanol that could be used in cars fuelled entirely by ethanol.
XIV. What do you think the aviation will be like a hundred years from now? What changes will occur? Use your imagination and make some predictions. Follow are some topics to think about:
· Kind of fuel
· Flight conditions
· Duration of flight
You may wish to make comparisons among the past, the present, and the future. Use the phrases given below:
I predict that someday … will ….. In the near future… In the distant future… Someday, … By 2050, there will be …
XV. Discuss which of these people use a computer in their jobs and why. Use the phrases from the table below.
· travel agent
· flight attendant
· air traffic controller
· aircraft designer
Stating Your Opinion
In my opinion,
It appears that
From my point of view,
It seems to me that
XVI. Use the correct form of be, have and do to complete the questions. Then give true answers.
1. _____ you ever visited an Airshow?
2. _____ you well versed in mathematics?
3. _____there any new gadgets on the market that you want?
4. _____ you know any good websites?
5. _____ you going to buy a new computer?
6. _____you intrwieved last time?
7. _____ you agree with the statement that children are spending more time watching television and playing computer games?
8. _____ your friend been studying English for 10 years?
What is a memo?
A memo is:
a hard-copy (sent on paper) document
used for communicating inside an organisation
contains To, From, Date, Subject Headings and Message sections
Memo does not need to be signed, but sometimes has the sender's name at the bottom to be more friendly, or the sender's full name to be more formal.
There are three basic reasons to write a memo:
to persuade action
to issue a directive
or to provide a report
XVII. Write the missing phrases in the following memo. To: All Hourly Employees From: (1) ______ Date: November 1, 2011 Subject: (2) _______
(3) ________to announce the annual Lear Christmas party will be held December 17, 2011 at 6:00pm in Oshawa at the C.A.W. union hall. The dinner will be prepared by Judy's Catering and served at 6:30pm, followed by a dance at 8:00pm. (4) _______ live music, games, and prizes throughout the night. Guests are welcome but on a first come first serve basis as these tickets are limited. Fees for the night are as follows: Employee's and their spouse $10.00 each, guests $30.00 each.
(5) ______ your social committee member to purchase tickets by December 2, 2011 as tickets will not be available after this date.
XVIII. Find a technical advertisement in a trade magazine. Assume that you work for a company that uses a product similar to the one in the advertisement. Write a memo to your supervisor suggesting that the company switch to the brand in the advertisement. Point out the unique features of the product and attach a copy of the advertisement to your memo.