The position of the Russian language in the world. Official status
Modern Russian language was formed around the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries. (The standard version, in the Russian tradition known as the literary language). Of subsequent changes should be made reform of the Russian spelling, 1918, as well as less significant changes in 1956.
In the XX century Russian language became one of the so-called world (global) languages. Distribution of Russian language geographically and territorially was largely the result of the Russian Empire and then the Soviet Union and now the Russian Federation.
Russian is the official language in the following countries: Russia, Belarus (along with Belarus), partially recognized South Ossetia (along with Ossetian) and the unrecognized Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (along with the Moldovan and Ukrainian).
Russian language is the official language of state institutions (in all other cases or other languages as official act) in the following countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, partially recognized Abkhazia. In a number of administrative units of Moldova, Romania and Ukraine, Russian is recognized as one of the official languages. In Tajikistan, the Russian language is constitutionally the "language of interethnic communication". In some counties, the State of New York for the Russian language should be translated documents related to the election.
Russian language was the national or official status in a number of historical states. He is also an official and working language in a number of international organizations.
The total number of Russian speakers in the world on the 1999 assessment - about 167 million, about 110 million people speak Russian as a second language.
At present, the Russian language is unofficially the international language for manned missions to near-Earth orbit. Spoken Russian language are required reading in all the astronauts working on the International Space Station.
Date: 2015-01-12; view: 736