Old Russian language
In the XIV-XV centuries on the basis of the East Slavic languages (also called Old Russian) formed Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian languages (dialect groups), and a number of ancient dialect features that distinguish subsequently three East Slavic language, appeared before this time. In the XVI-XVII centuries and have developed «Borean-Greatrussian» and «Southen-Greatrussian» adverb and intermediate «Average-Greatrussian Talks».
Church Slavonic language from the very beginning was (and still is) the language of Orthodox worship, long time, he has held a dominant position in the field of writing in general.
In the XIV-XVIII centuries, writing, and for a long time and the official language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was from western written language, which, in spite of the fact that had at its core the Belarusian and Ukrainian substrate is subjected to strong influence of the Polish and Old Church languages.
At the same time that two new options "simple Language Society": Belarusian and Ukrainian (more Slavicised). However, the "simple Ruska mova" was not a spoken language, and artificial book, which also had to master, as well as Church Slavonic.
The oldest literary monuments in the history of Russian language - is the Novgorod Code (1st quarter of XI century), Ostromirov`s Gospel (1056/1057 ã.) in Slavonic and birch bark (from the XI century) on Old-Novgorod`s dialect.
Given the evidence of monuments and checking their data a comparative study of Russian dialects, we can restore these the most important stages in the development of the grammatical structure of Russian language XIV-XVII centuries:
- Loss of the dual category (a reminder of the dual number in the form of masculine nouns, use is with numbers äâà, òðè, ÷åòûðå, two, ïîë- and ïîëòîðà special form, in most cases coincides with the form of the genitive singular, but sometimes different from She accented with: äâà çâåðÿ, äâà øàãà, äâà øàðà, äâà ÷àñà; relics of the dual are also modern forms: êîëåíè, î÷è, ïëå÷è, óøè and a few others);
- Loss of short forms of the adjective in the oblique cases (in modern language forms are stored in the frozen expressions like: íà áîñó íîãó, ñðåäü áåëà äíÿ, ê åäðéíå ôéíå and others;
- Extensive development and consolidation in the written monuments of the later period (from the XVI-XVII centuries) forms of instrumental case of nouns and adjectives that belong to a predicate (type “îí áûë ó÷èòåëåì” (“he was a teacher”));
- Elimination of vowel alternations in stems in velar sounds.
- Interference with the basics of declension into hard and soft consonants.
- Simplification of times gone by;
- Create a category gerunds;
- In the area of case forms for nouns XIII-XVII centuries seen to increase and develop designs with prepositions;
- Development of the structure of speech is also the development of complex sentences.
Date: 2015-01-12; view: 831