115. What is defined as a tax imposed that is equal in value to the negative externality? A Pigovian tax
116. Which international document did aim at improving life in human settlements? The Habitat II Conference on Human Settlements (Istanbul, 1996)
117. Who did state that “cities are the world’s future and that they can be made livable? Habitat Secretary General Dr. N’Dow
118. What are the criteria for the “Best Practices” cities? Impact — Programs that have achieved the most tangible improvements in the lives and livelihoods of women, men and children;
a. Partnerships — The cities and communities that were able to form lasting partnerships between local and national governments, community organizations, the private sector and international agencies;
b. Sustainability — Initiatives that have resulted in changes in legislation, policies and decision-making, ensuring that the benefits to people are sustained.
119. What are main characteristics of sustainable human settlements defined by the Habitat Conference? a positive vision of sustainable human settlements — where all have adequate shelter, a healthy and safe environment, basic services, and productive and freely chosen employment.
120. Which document does consider urbanization as a positive phenomenon and an effective means for improving access to services, as well as economic and social opportunities? Global Report 7th lec
121. What are advantages of urbanization? advantage of the opportunities of proximity, diversity, and marketplace competition. improving opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation
122. According to the 2005 Revision of the UN World Urbanization Prospects report, how much will the urban population by 2030? rise to 60% (4.9 billion)
123. When the working definition of sustainable consumption was adopted? in January 1994 at "Oslo Symposium"
124. What are stakeholders of sustainable production and consumption? The Marrakech process
125. What are common features for definitions of sustainable consumption, sustainable production and sustainable development?
Quality of life;
Wise use of resources, and minimization of waste and pollution;
Use of renewable resources within their capacity for renewal;
Fuller product life-cycles; and
Inter-generational and intra-generational equity.
131. What are key economic sectors that need focusing on sustainable production to improve environmental performance? "The emphasis of sustainable production is on the supply side of the equation, focusing on improving environmental performance in key economic sectors, such as agriculture, energy, industry, tourism and transport.
132. Which organization is a leading independent authority that is exploring the dimensions of consumption and production? The Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production (CSCP)
133. What is the title for the 10-Year Framework Programs for Sustainable Consumption and Production? "Marrakech Process"
134. What are the three strategic priority areas of the Marrakech Process agenda? The first area deals with the socio-economic consequences of progress towards SCP, especially its contribution to human development and poverty reduction in developing countries. Addressing the consumption side is the focus of the second area, which deals with both individual and institutional patterns of consumption. The production side is dealt with in the third area, in which the CSCP seeks to encourage responsible industrial development.
135. What is defined as “the total weight of material flow 'carried by' an item of consumption in the course of its life cycle”? Ecological rucksack
136. What is defined as the more efficient use of materials and energy in order to reduce economic costs and environmental impacts? Eco-efficiency
137. Reduction of which indicator of a product is equivalent to increasing resource productivity? MIPS (material intensity per service unit)
138. What are two top priorities for changing consumption patterns? The changes in consumption patterns that most clearly influence the energy and material intensity of consumption have to do with changes in residing and mobility. These are also the sectors in which energy consumption grew most between 1985 and 1990 (Nurmela, 1993).
139. Which factors do determine the impact of population on the planet's resources and waste load calculated by means of the formula? The impact of any population on the planet's resources and waste load is the product of the population times its level of affluence times the damage done by the particular technologies that support that affluence (Meadows et al, 1992, p. 100). We would like to add to this formula a fourth essential factor, that is, the convergence of consumption patterns.
140. What is percent of consumption of the Earth's natural resources by industrial countries? between 40 and 86 percent
141. What is the ratio of per capita consumption rates in freshwater and grains in industrialized countries compared to non-industrialized countries? 3
142. Which process is referred to as manufacture of smaller and more light-weight products, resulted in less energy and materials needed to produce one unit? Dematerialization and energy efficiency
143. Which process is characterized by an increased portion of economic or other activity carried out across national borders?_________________________________________????????????
144. What is referred to as the provision of a maximum of useful end-services to consumers by using a minimum of materials and energy, and implying minimal environmental disruption? Service efficiency
145. Which approach does regard modern consumption from the cradle to the grave? LCA (life-cycle assessment)
146. How much is the industrial flow above its natural flow for metal such as lead? 18 times greater
147. Which system is aimed at creation of a sustainable production system which is circular, cradle-to-cradle? Clean production
148. Which model does require the 'product take back', where the producer takes back a product at the end of its useful life either directly of through a third party? Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR)
149. What is referred to as new production processes, new products or services, and new management and business methods aimed at environmental protection? Eco-innovation
150. According to the OECD study, what is share of goods and services provided by eco-industries in the EU-25 GDP? 2.2%
151. What is referred to as using less energy to provide the same level of energy service? Energy efficiency
152. By what means can be energy efficiency achieved? by means of a more efficient technology or process rather than by changes in individual behavior
153. What is referred to as the “twin pillars” of a sustainable energy policy? Energy efficiency and renewable energy
154. What kind of energy use is referred to as paying the full cost of energy, including the cost of assuring that future generations will have their part of clean energy resources?"Sustainable" energy
155. What is referred to as the amount of carbon dioxide a country releases into the atmosphere during a certain period- usually one year- divided by the total population of that country? Biofuels – carbon-neutral fuels
156. What is referred to as the total amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gases emitted over the full life cycle of a product or service”?carbon footprint
157. What is the goal of the "20 Percent by 2010" campaign in the USA? towns sign up to pledge to get 20 percent of the town's energy needs met by green power by 2010
158. What is referred to as the removal of pollutants or contaminants for the general protection of the environment? Environmental remediation
159. What process is referred to as the removal of pollutants or contaminants for the general protection of the environment? Environmental remediation
160. According to the Kazakhstan’s legislation on renewables what is expected development of wind power by 2024? to support the development of up to 2000MW of wind power
161. According to the Kazakhstan’s legislation on renewables what is expected development of new small scale hydro-electric power generation by 2024? to support the development of up up to 1000MW
162. What is emission reduction required by the Kyoto Protocol in OECD countries by 2012, relative to 1990 levels? about 700 million tons of carbon dioxide
163. What are the ‘flexible mechanisms’ established under the Kyoto Protocol that allow annex I countries to meet their GHG emission limitations? The three mechanisms are: (1) projects implemented jointly (Article 6), (2) the clean development mechanism (CDM, Article 12), and (3) trading of emission reduction units (Article 17). Restrictions on nuclear energy do not apply to emission trading
164. What are the main ethical principles? Ethical principles of business and management of the organization are integrity, value and loyalty. From these principles our standards are established to (1) encourage adherence to uncompromising ethical behavior, (2) increase awareness and acceptance of ethical conduct, and (3) emphasize the role of ethics when formulating decisions
165. Which of ethical standards of business do support employee’s human rights? Sustainability and Social Responsibility
166. According to the ITM Ethical Standards Committee survey what are the key facilitators of ethical behavior in the case of deceitful practices? individual values
167. What is referred to as "a concept whereby companies decide voluntarily to contribute to a better society and a cleaner environment”? Corporate Social Responsibility
168.What is referred to as "a process whereby public authorities seek to procure goods, services and works with a reduced environmental impact throughout their life cycle?Green Public Procurement
169. What is the target set for EU member states inGreen Public Procurement by 2010? The target set for EU member states is 50% Green Public Procurement by 2010In a recent report by CSR Europe, it appears that a small number of countries are at the forefront of Green Public Procurement. These include Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden and the UK. In the key priority sectors identified for GPP (sectors which have a greater impact on the environment) such as IT, electricity and furniture the level of GPP of the countries listed above is among the highest
170. What is referred to as “the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and value”? Civil society
171. Who is referred to as “a full and equal member of a polity, such as a democratic country”? A citizen
172. What is referred to as “a single identity possessed equally by all citizens of the polity, regardless of differences”? civic identity
173. What is referred to as “the fundamental institution that connects the individual bearer of rights to the protective agencies of the state”? Citizenship
174. What are types of participatory skills required for exercising the rights and carrying out the responsibilities and duties of citizenship in a democracy? Three types of participatory skills are interacting, monitoring, and influencing
175. Which organization has generated the Human Development Index and a number of other indices for measuring poverty, gender empowerment, governance and political freedom? United Nations Development Programme (UNDP
176. What are the two essential principles of democracy? control over public decision making and decision makers; and (2) equality between citizens in the exercise of that control; the expectation that third wave countries are on their way toward strong and established democracies. According to him the majority of the countries dubbed to be in transition are in fact in a huge grey zone of non-democratic regimes. He argues that only a handful of countries in Central Eastern Europe and Asia including Hungary, Poland and Taiwan appear to be consolidating democracy
177. What are the critical values of democracy? elections in new democracies have also been a source of a number of negative trends, According to Schedler, the phenomenon of “electoral authoritarianism” is one where elections are characterised by systematic cheating by the incumbent regime. These are the values of participation, authorization, representativeness, accountability, transparency, responsiveness and solidarity.
178. What are the requirements for the principle of participation in democracy? civil and political rights system, economic and social rights, elections, parties, NGOs, education for citizenship
179. What are the institutional means required for realization of the accountability principle in democracy? rule of law, sep. of powers, independent auditing process, legally enforceable standards, strong parliament. Scrutiny powers
180. What are the institutional means for realization of the transparency principle in democracy? freedom of info. Legislation, independent media
181. What are the indicators used to measure the Human Development Index? The HDI provides a composite measure of three dimensions of human development: living a long and healthy life (measured by life expectancy), being educated (measured by adult literacy and gross enrolment in education) and having a decent standard of living (measured by purchasing power parity, PPP, income)
182. What is Kazakhstan’s Human Development Index value? its HDI value of 0.804
183. What is Kazakhstan’s Gender Related Development Index value? Kazakhstan's GDI value, 0.803 should be compared to its HDI value of 0.804. Its GDI value is 99.9% of its HDI value
184. Which index does measure women’s involvement in economic and political life? The gender empowerment measure (GEM) reveals whether women take an active part in economic and political life
185. What is Kazakhstan’s Gender Empowerment Measure value? Kazakhstan ranks 73rd out of 109 countries in the GEM, with a value of 0.532.
186. What is the timeframe for the Kazakhstan’s civil society development concept? concept of the civil society development for 2006-2011 was adopted
187. Which organization established in 1919 did aim at disarmament and preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy and improving global welfare? The League of Nations was established in 1919 at the negotiations over the Treaty of Versailles following the end of World War I. Enshrined in its Charter was a mandate to promote many of the rights which were later included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
188. Which documents is considered to be the first record of human rights in Europe? The Twelve Articles of Black Forest
189. Which Article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights does proclaim the right to education? Article 26
190. Which document does state that “development is a human right”? The 1986 UN Declaration on the Right to Development
191. What was the International document that first proclaimed that “freedom from poverty is an integral and inalienable human right”? Under the UN Charter the international community recognizes that all human beings have equal, inalienable rights
192. Which document does state that “Good governance ensures that political, social and economic priorities are based on broad consensus in society …“? The UNDP policy document "Governance for Sustainable Human Development"
193. What is the timeframe for the Kazakhstan’s “Human Rights Action Plan”? Human Rights Action Plan 2009-2012’
194. What is Kazakhstan’s ranking in Political Rights given by the Freedom House? Freedom House observers group ranks Kazakhstan with a 6 in Political Rights
195. When was the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) ratified by Kazakhstan? The right to form associations had been written into the Constitution and, in 2005, Kazakhstan ratified the International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights, which states that each person shall have the right to associate with others.
196. Which economic indicator is used as a measure of a person's welfare and an approximation of general national well-being? Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP per person)
197. Which indicator does consider consumer expenditure balanced by income distribution and cost associated with pollution and other unsustainable costs? The Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare is an economic indicator intended to replace the GDP
198. What is defined as the income level, below which people are defined as poor? the absolute level of income
199. Which indicator of poverty is defined as “the percentage of the population whose income is below a given poverty line”? the third dimension is measured by the percentage of the population below the income poverty line (50% of median household disposable income). decent standard of living,
200. What are indicators of the third dimension related to a decent standard of living for the Human Poverty Index-1? Economic provisioning For the HPI-1, it is measured by the unweighted average of the percentage of the population without access to safe water and the percentage of underweight children for their age.
a. 192. What was the proportion of population with incomes below the subsistence minimum obtained under the Kazakhstan’s Poverty Reduction Programme of 2003-2005? a pronounced skewness in distribution of income and wealth with 28.4 percent of the population living below the minimum subsistence level in 2001
210. GDP per capita
211. US dollars
216. Proportion of population with incomes below the subsistence minimum
222. Poverty reduction target! Reduce the proportion of the population with income lower than minimum level from 24,2% in 2002 down to 20% in 2005. In fact, as estimated by the National Agency of Statistics such indicator was 9.8% in 2005
223. What is a statistical measure used to determine “the average lifespan of the population of a certain nation or area”? The Life Expectancy Index is a statistical measure used to determine the average lifespan of the population of a certain nation or area
224. What was the average birth rate for the whole world per year per 1000 total population in 2009? As for 2009, the average birth rate for the whole world is 19.95 per year per 1000 total population.
225. What is referred to as a total fertility rate that is not high enough to replace an area's population? Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that is not high enough to replace an area's population.
226. What is the timeframe of the State Health Care Reform and Development Program adopted by Kazakhstan? for 2005-2010 sets ambitious goals and a sensible reform plan
227. What are the total funds allocated for the Kazakhstan Health Sector Technology Transfer and Institutional Reform Project? In January 2008 the World Bank’s Board approved a US$ 117.7 million loan for the Kazakhstan Health Sector Technology Transfer and Institutional Reform Project. The total Project cost is $296 million, with $178.4 million being co-financed by the GOK.
228. Which WHO/UNICEF document does define “primary health care as ensuring that all people…have access to the services and conditions necessary for realizing the best possible health”? The International Conference on the primary healthcare (PHC) in 15-16 October 2008 was devoted to 30th Anniversary of Alma-Ata Declaration on Primary Healthcare – one of basic documents of world system of public health services named “Great Charter of public health services of XX century”. In the Alma Ata Declaration, signed by 136 states of the world in September, 1978 at conference of WHO/UNICEF, global health leaders defined
229. Which document does state that culture is "the whole complex of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterize a society or social group"? According to the I982 Mexico City Declaration on Cultural Policies, culture is
230. Which document does proclaim “right to freedom of expression and opinion, association, and choice of education for one's children”? On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
· Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
· No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
· Article 26.
· Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
· Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
· Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.