You are going to read a newspaper article about language learning. Seven paragraphs have been removed from the article. Choose from the paragraphs A-H the one which fits each gap (16–21).
There is an example at the beginning (0):
À BILINGUAL APPROACH WITH AN EARLY START
The best time to learn a second language is when you are young; hence the popularity of primary and secondary schools which offer “bilingual education”.
This term describes everything from an hour a day of a second language to classes that switch from one language in the mornings to another in the afternoons.
With a few exceptions (Scandinavia, Luxembourg, Austria, and the Netherlands), the second language is usually introduced at secondary school.
More extensive bilingual programmes, where language learning is integrated into the general curriculum, are more often found in private schools which tend to have greater flexibility and more money. They tend to take one of three approaches.
For example at the American International School of Florence, primary school lessons are taught in English, except for the language programme. Head Marc Greenside explained that there were two sections for language instruction:
“Host language country dominant”, on the other hand, is when the basic language of instruction is that of the country where the school is situated. For example, the Centre International Valbonne in Southern France, uses French as its working language, although it does have classes in several other languages.
The third, most difficult approach is “fully bilingual”. In primary schools the students may spend mornings learning their subjects in one language and afternoons in another.
The Coz School in Turkey is one such school and is described as “bilingual and bicultural”.
A similar approach, but including three or even four languages, is found in the nine European schools run by the European Union for the children of its personnel.
Secondary school academic subjects are in these three languages and sometimes a fourth.
Are students in any way held back by the difficulties of such programmes? Eric Klauda, from the International School of Brussels, said: “I see bilingualism working here. Studies show that students who are bilingual are helped in their overall academic performance”.
Marc Greenside of AIS Florence, in response to the question said: “My feeling is that bilingual education is okay for the really strong student, but the average student winds up doing poorly in both languages”.
However, Paul Decorvet of Geneva disagreed: “The problem arises when languages are taught in an academic way rather than the way they should be taught – actively, as a child learns a first language. You have to teach naturally, without stopping to translate”.
A “We have Italian as a foreign language and an Italian programme designed for the native speakers. This second one teaches the children a little history, a little social studies, all in Italian”.
B These children enter primary school in one of several sections based on their own first language. There is a choice of one of three languages (English, German or French) as the second language, and subjects are taught in both.
C Similarly the American Institute in Moscow avoids using English at all in its curriculum. Instead, primary students are taught all subjects in Spanish and, on advancement to secondary school, the basic language of instruction is switched to Italian.
DMost state schools in Europe take the former approach. The preferred second language is generally English (except for the Flemish part of Belgium, where French dominates) and it is treated as an academic subject like maths or history.
EDespite his argument, however, secondary lessons at the school are held in English. This happens because of the need for students to do well in entry tests for American universities.
F In this school, Turkish, Fine Arts, Physical Education, Religion and Social Studies are taught in Turkish. Sciences, Maths, and Computer Studies, however, are taught in English.
G According to “Host school language dominant” which is the first approach, the language of the school's operators is the basic language of instruction.
HAt secondary level the approach changes a little. Students may learn science in one language and history in the other.
Task II. ENGLISH IN USE.
1. Error correction.
In most lines of the following text, there is one unnecessary word. It is either grammatically incorrect or it doesn't fit in with the sense of the text. For each numbered line 1–13, write the unnecessary word in the space. Some lines are correct. Indicate these with a tick (n).
The exercise begins with two examples:
In August Gordon will then have been at his company for 25 years,
and he's getting a bonus of three weeks paid holiday. So, we have
decided to hire a car and drive around Eastern Europe. We'll be
leaving towards the end of August, and our aim there is to visit as
many countries as we can. We are flying out to Budapest – soon we are
dew to catch a plane on the 28th day – and then we'll be stopping over
at a friend's house, before starting our grand tour. We'll most probably
spend the best part of a week in Hungary. When we've just finished
there, we'll probably be go to Romania, but beyond that we haven't
planned too much. We will know a bit more by the end
of this week, when we're getting a whole load of brochures from the
tourist board. We'd like to go to as far as Russia, but realistically I
doubt whether we'll have time. I hope it won't be too expensive –
from till now on we'll really have to tighten our belts! I can't wait!
In just over two months' of time we'll be having the time of our lives!