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Read the text again and find out if the following statements are true or false.

Part 1

ARCHITECTURE AND THE ARCHITECT

Unit 1

THE ART OF ARCHITECTURE

Warming-up

1. Why did you make up your mind to become an architect?

2. Did anybody advice you to choose a career?

3. What can you say about the role of an architect in civilized society?

4. What do you think the word "architecture" means?

5. What famous architects do you know?

 

Text

Architecture is the art and the technique of building, employed to fulfil the practical and expressive requirements of civilized people. Almost every settled society that possesses the techniques for building produces architecture. It is necessary in all but the simplest cultures; without it, man is confined to a primitive struggle with the elements; with it, he has not only a defence against the natural environment but also the benefits of a human environment, a prerequisite for and a symbol of the development of civilized institutions.

The characteristics that distinguish a work of architecture from other man-made structures are (1) the suitability of the work to use by human beings in general and the adaptability of it to particular human activities; (2) the stability and permanence of the work's construction; and (3) the communication of experience and ideas through its form.

All these conditions must be met in architecture. The second is a constant, while the first and the third vary in relative importance according to the social function of buildings. If the function is chiefly utilitarian, as in a factory, communication is of less importance. If the function is chiefly expressive, as in a monumental tomb, utility is a minor concern. In some buildings such as churches and city halls, utility and communication may be of equal importance.

Read the text. Tell about the main functions of architecture

Read the text again and find out if the following statements are true or false.

1. Architecture should fulfil requirements of primitive people.

2. Without architecture, man is confined to a primitive struggle with the elements.

3. Structures should be built according to aesthetic and functional criteria.

4. There are no differences between a work of architecture and other man-made structures.

5. The stability and permanence of the work's construction is a constant for all types of buildings.

6. In a factory, utility and communication are of equal importance.

3. Complete the sentences.

1. Almost every settled society that possesses the techniques for building produces …

a) nature b) architecture c) struggle

2. It is necessary in all but the simplest ...

a) theories b) works c) cultures

3. With architecture, man has a prerequisite for the development of civilized…

a) importance b) institutions c) symbols

4. The stability and permanence of the work's construction is a/an ...

a) idea b) form c) constant

5. If the function is chiefly utilitarian, communication is of less ...



a) importance b) condition c) benefit

6. In a monumental tomb, utility is a minor ...

a) feature b) concern c) experience

7. Utility and communication are equally important in churches and …

a) markets b) plants c) city halls

4. Choose the right adjective.

1. Architecture should fulfil the practical and expressive requirements of ... people.

a) primitive b) civilized c) common

2. With architecture, man has benefits of a/an ... environment.

a) essential b) natural c) human

 

3. Expressive and utilitarian functions in architecture may vary in ... importance.

a) principal b) relative c) expressive

4. In a ... tomb, the function is chiefly expressive.

a) monumental b) brick c) social

5. Utility and communication may be of... importance in churches and city halls.

a) simple b) practical c) equal

5. Choose the right preposition.

1. ... architecture, man is confined to a primitive struggle with the elements.

a) By b) At c) Without d) In

2. There are some characteristics that, distinguish a work of architecture ... other man-made structures.

a) from b) behind c) with d)for

3. With architecture, he has a defence ... the natural environment.

a) in b) behind c) against d) under

4. The combination of experience and ideas ... the work's form is one of the functions of architecture.

a) with b) between c) after d) through

5. All these conditions must be met ... architecture.

a) at b) in c) from d) on

6. Make up the sentences with the following expressions:

to be of less importance

to be of great importance

to be of equal importance

 

7. Match the pairs of synonyms (A) and antonyms (B)

Example: importance = concern

(A) importance; building; man; the simplest; to possess; structure; primitive; to have; a human being; a work of architecture; concern

Example: civilized ≠ primitive

(B) civilized; general; with; more; primitive; particular; less; without


Date: 2016-04-22; view: 1354


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