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Different scholars offer different sets of principles of management. The most famous are the following fourteen. But the main principle should be read as follows: "there is nothing rigid or absolute in management affairs, it is all a question of proportion." Accordingly if you view the following list of these principles as a set of important topics and sometimes applicable guidelines for managers, you will be keeping close to the spirit in which they were originally suggested.

1. Division of work. Within limits, reduction in the number of tasks a worker performs or the number of responsibilities a manger has can increase skill and performance.

2. Authority. Authority is the right to give orders and enforce them with reward or penalty. Responsibility is accountability for results. The two should be balanced, neither exceeding nor being less than the other.

3. Discipline. Discipline is the condition of compliance and commitment that results from the network of stated or implied understandings between employees and managers. Discipline is mostly a result of the ability of leadership. It depends upon good supervisors at all levels making and keeping clear and fair agreements concerning work.

4. Unity of command. Each employee should receive orders from one superior only.

5. Unity of direction. One manager and one plan for each group of activities having the same objective is necessary to coordinate, unify, and focus action.

6. Subordination of individual interests to general interest. Ignorance, ambition, selfishness, laziness, weakness, and all human passion tend to cause self-serving instead of organization-serving behavior on the job. Managers need to find ways to reconcile these interests by setting a good example and supervising firmly and fairly.

7. Remuneration of personnel. Various methods of payment may be suitable, but amounts should reflect economic conditions and be administered to reward well-directed effort.

8. Centralization. Like other organisms, organizations need direction and coordination from a central nervous system. But how much centralization or decentralization is appropriate depends upon the situation. The degree of centralization that makes best use of the abilities of employees is the goal.

9. Scalar chain (line of authority). The scalar chain is the chain of command ranging from the top executive to the lowest ranks. Adhering to the chain of command helps implement unity of direction, but sometimes the chain is too long, and better communications and better decisions can result from two or more department heads solving problems directly rather than referring them up the chain until a common superior is reached.

10. Order. Both equipment and people must be well chosen, well placed, and well organized for a smooth-running organization.

11. Equity. Kindliness and justice will encourage employees to work well and be loyal.

12. Stability of tenure of personnel. Changes in employee assignments will be necessary, but if they occur too frequently they can damage morale and efficiency.

13. Initiative. Thinking through a plan and carrying it out successfully can be deeply satisfying. Managers should set aside personal vanity and encourage employees to do this as much as possible.

14. Esprit de corps. Build teamwork.

1. Dwell on the importance of each principle in the work of a manager. Try to exemplify your answer.

T E X T 6

Date: 2016-04-22; view: 639

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