3. Payment made for professional advice or services.
4. Person or body with managerial or administrative responsibility.
5. Make certain.
6. Secure compensation in the event of loss or damage by advance regular payments.
7. In a higher position; of higher rank.
8. Principle directing action.
9. Power to certain, receive, experience, or produce.
10. The ability to attract, influence, and inspire people by your personal qualities.
11. Someone who formally asks to be given something, such as a job or a place at a college or university.
Ex. 5.Give the Russian equivalents to the following.
Involved in management; production oriented; impose regulations, ever-more-complex environment; encompasses both science and art; business executives; code of conduct; develop the body of knowledge; with respect to the second criterion; the issue is much less clear-out; is consistent with their interest; self-interest or concern for others; decision-making machinery; cross-cultural skills; consulting fee; character attributes; compare against the places set earlier; authority.
Ex. 6.Translate the following text into Russian in written form.
People working for a company are referred as its workforce, employees, staff, or personnel and are on its payroll.
In some context, especially more conservative ones, employees and workforce refer to those working on the shopfloor of a factory actually making things. Similarly, staff is sometimes used to refer only to managers and office-based workers. This traditional division is also found in the expressions white-collar and blue-collar.
Another traditional division is that between management and labor.
Personnel departments are usually involved in finding new staff and recruiting them, hiring them, or taking them on, in a process of recruitment. Someone recruited is a recruit, or in American English only, a hire.
They are also involved when people are made to leave the organization, or fired. These responsibilities are referred to, relatively informally, as hiring and firing. If you leave the job voluntarily, you quit.
Middle-managers are now most often mentioned in the context of re-engineering, delaying, downsizing, or rightsizing: all these expressions describe the recent trend for companies to reduce the numbers of people they employ, often by getting rid of layers of managers from the middle of hierarchy.
An organization that has undergone this process is lean and its hierarchy is flat.
Read the text once again and in turn explain, in your own words, the meaning of the following terms:
1. workforce, employee, staff, personnel, a recruit, a hire, layer, labour.
2. white-collar, blue-collar.
3. to recruit, to employ, to hire.
4. to fire, to quit, to get rid of.
T E X T 1
ART OR SCIENCE?
Management is the art and science of making appropriate choices. To one degree or another, we are all involved in managing and are constantly making decisions concerning how to spend or use our resources.
Like most things in our modern, changing world, the function of management is becoming more complex. The role of the manager today is much different from what itwas one hundred years, fifty years or even twenty-five years ago. At the turn of the century, for example, the business manager's objective was to keep his company running and to make a profit. Most firms were production oriented. Few constraints affected management's decisions. Governmental agencies imposed little regulations on business. The modern manager must now consider the environment in which the organisation operates and be prepared to adopt a wider perspective. That is, the manager must have a good understanding of management principles, an appreciation of the current issues and broader objectives of the total economic political, social, and ecological system in which we live, and he must posses the ability to analyze complex problems.
The modern manager must be sensitive, and responsive tothe environment - thatis he should recognize andbe able to evaluate the needs of the total context in which his business functions, and he should act in accord with his understanding.
Modern management must posses the ability to interact in an ever-more-complex environment and to make decisions that will allocate scarce resources effectively. A major part of the manager’s job will be to predict what the environment needs and what changes will occur in the future.
Organizations exist to combine human efforts in order to achieve certain goals. Management is the process by which these human efforts are combined with each other and with material resources. Management encompasses both science and art. In designing and constructing plans and products, management must draw on technology and physical science, of course, and, the behavioral sciences also can contribute to management. However much you hear about "scientific management" or "management science", in handling people aid managing organizations it is necessary to draw on intuition and subjective judgment. The science portion of management is expanding, more and more decisions can be analyzed and programmed, particularly with mathematics. But although the artistic side of management may be declining in its proportion of the whole process it will remain central and critical portion of your future jobs. In short:
· Knowledge (science) without skill (art) is useless, or dangerous;
· Skill (art) without knowledge (science) means stagnancy and inability to pass on learning;
Like the physician, the manager is a practitioner. As the doctor draws on basic sciences of chemistry, biology, and physiology, the business executive draws on the sciences of mathematics, psychology, and sociology.
1. The function of management is becoming more complex. Why?