Teather (2004) and Rymes (2008) argue that a big challenge is to incorporate intercultural and international understanding and knowledge into the education of their students. Another challenge is to educate, or “transform”, to function effectively and comfortably in a world characterized by close; multi-faceted relationships and permeable borders because international literacy and cross-cultural understanding have become critical to a country’s cultural, technological, economic, and political health. Third challenge is to generate and transmit cross-cultural knowledge and information to students to ensure students possess a certain level of global competence to understand the world they live in and how they fit into this world.
To cope with several cultural challenges, it is the university’s job to take great strides to increase intercultural understanding through processes of organizational change and innovations by turning around four major dimensions which include: organizational change, curriculum innovation, staff development, and student mobility.
Conclusions and implications
To sum up, cultural literacy has been an important aim of global education. Mutual intercultural understanding and intercultural competence do not necessarily come from just being in intercultural environments, or communicating with people from different backgrounds. Cultural exchanges, international educational and professional mobility, and increasing frequent encounters with strangers are, as beneficial they are in the process of internationalization and globalization, yet not sufficient in themselves for developing enlightened, sensitive and effective global citizens. One needs both international experience and theory-based education and training to become an intercultural expert.
In addition, the ability to reflect upon and analyse what is happening in intercultural encounters, and why, as well as the ability to change one’s own behaviour to be inter-culturally appropriate whenever deemed necessary, are important pre-requisites for any further intercultural learning.
Consequently, the ultimate goal to cultural literacy, and as related to globalization, is to foster an understanding of ones self and others through engaging, relevant, and meaningful instruction. Teachers should encompass a wide variety of content, multicultural literacy, and cultural literacy practices that supports a student's first language and culture. Lastly, even given the fact that globalization has resulted in cultural hegemony, educators should strive to maintain diversity in their classrooms in order to prepare students for their future within a globalized society.
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