Life involves a certain (0) A__ of risk, or at least it did. These days, however, governments seem to have become (1) ____ with the idea of protecting us from it. As a result, what we actually risk most is not being allowed to live at all. (2) ____take a recent edict which emerged from the British government's health and safety department. It would be amusing if it wasn't so serious. Circus artistes performing on tightropes or the flying trapeze are being (3) ____ to wear the type of hard hats more usually (4) ____with the construction industry. Under a relatively new law (5) ____ as the 'temporary work at heights directive', such a hat must be worn for any working activity taking (6) ____above the height of an 'average stepladder'. Now you might think that sounds (7) ____ reasonable, but the absurd thing is that the rule is being (8) ____to circus performers as well. The first to be hit by this rule were baffled members of the Moscow State Circus, who were touring England at the time. Used to flying through the air without even the (9) ____of a safety net, they (10) ____that trapeze artistes often break arms and legs, but (11) ____ heads. This simple fact was apparently (12) ____on the bureaucrats at the government department, however, who insisted that the rule be followed.
In other words
For questions 13-27, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the exam you write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on a separate answer sheet.
Example: 0 NO
THE HAMSTER'S BODY CLOCK
Hamsters have (0) ____need for alarm clocks. In the strange world of circadian rhythms – the 24-hour cycle (13) ____ governs almost every biological process in every living thing, (14) ____body temperature to digestion to sleeping and waking – the hamster is (15) ____equivalent of the Swiss watch. (16) ____to Professor Michael Antle from the University of Calgary's Department of Psychology, you can predict to within a minute (17) ____ a hamster is going to wake up. Humans, however, are more (18) ____ a cheap supermarket wall-clock, since their sleeping patterns are less reliable.
Professor Antle is studying the group of 20,000 cells in the brain that (19) ____ up the circadian clock. He's hoping to explain something astonishing that's happening to his hamsters. (20) ____turning on their light for fifteen minutes in the middle of the night, he can make them wake up an hour earlier the next day. But if instead he gives them a new drug that he's experimenting (21) ____they're (22) ____and about eight hours early. They will still need their usual fourteen hours' sleep, but their biological clocks appear to (23) ____been set back. When he saw the effect initially in his laboratory, Antle was shocked at (24) ____big it was. An eight-hour adjustment is something useful – it means that a hamster could be transported from its home in Canada (25) ____the way to London without suffering from jetlag.
If it could do (26) ____ for people, Antle really would be (27) ____ to something.
For questions 28-37, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the exam you write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on a separate answer sheet.
Example: | 0 || P | R | Î | U | D | | | |
Intrepid Travel has recently been the (0) _____winner of two major awards in the travel industry. Both awards relate to the company's (28) ____ to what is known as 'responsible tourism', and have the support of, amongst others, Geographical Magazine, the periodical produced by Britain's Royal Geographical Society. Intrepid Travel is (29) ____ tour operator which aims to provide its clients with holidays that take them off the (30) ____track in small groups, whilst at the same time allowing them the (31) ___ and freedom to really gain first-hand experience of local cultures. The company divides trips into two categories.
The Active Range aims to combine physical challenge with cultural (32)_____ whereas the Comfort Range puts the emphasis more on a combination of travel to unusual destinations and some of life's small (33) _____.
In other words, you have a (34) ____ of Intrepid adventure to suit both your budget and your preferred level of comfort. For example, you might find a trek in Peru more to your taste than, say, a feast in Morocco; or maybe an African safari is more likely
to meet your (35) _____ Intrepid clients get the chance to see some of the world's most (36) ____ places, engage with real cultures and have some (37) ____ real-life experiences along the way.
For questions 38-42, think of one word only which can be used appropriately in all three sentences. Here is an example (0).
· I was on the ____ of booking my flight when my boss said that I might have to change my holiday dates.
· As the meeting drew to a close, the chairperson moved on to the final ____ on the agenda.
· Theo couldn't see the ____ of getting to the airport too early, as the check-in desk only opened one hour before the flight departed.
The three gaps can each be filled with the word 'point', so you write: Example: | 0 || P | Î | I | N | T | In the exam you write only the missing word IN CAPITAL LETTERS on a separate answer sheet.
· Scientists are close to proving that there is definitely a ___ between diet and certain medical conditions.
· Tom's local flight was delayed, so he missed his __ at the international airport.
· The lights in the old car sometimes go out because there is a loose ____ in the electrical circuit.
· Shops originally had sales so that they could ___ their shelves of old stock and make room for new things.
· After the barbecue party, Sammy was told to ___ up the mess his friends had left in the garden.
· Petra was told to ___ everything out of her bedroom so that it could be used for guests in future.
· Sue has developed a range of cosmetics designed for people with ___ skin.
· The missing laptop is thought to contain highly ____ information about the company's business dealings.
· Fred's got a large bandage on his little finger and feels very ____ about it because he thinks it looks silly.
· Ray promised to ___ back to the student committee on the details of his meeting with the college principal.
· Patients should ___ to the Reception Desk immediately on arrival at the hospital.
· Most trainee journalists are asked to ___ on local events when they first join the newspaper.
· Rachel makes friends ____ as she enjoys meeting people and has a very outgoing personality.
· The carnival is ___ the most important event in the local calendar.
· You can get to the beach _____ by going out the back door of the hotel and following the cliff path.
For questions 43-50, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and six words, including the word given. Here is an example (0).
0 Chloe would only eat a pizza if she could have a mushroom topping.
Chloe _________ a mushroom topping when she ate a pizza.
The gap can be filled with the words 'insisted on having', so you write:
INSISTED ON HAVING
In the exam you write only the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS on a separate answer sheet.
I was disappointed to hear that Leo had decided not to play basketball any more.
UP Leo's decision to ____________________________ as a disappointment to me.
Brian couldn't explain how the stolen computer got into the boot of his car.
LOSS Brian ______________how the stolen computer got into the boot of his car.
The footballer injured his knee, so that was the end of his hopes of a first team place.
The footballer's knee __________________________his hopes of a first team place.
This film stands a very good chance of winning an award.
HIGHLY It is ________________________________win an award.
Davina can't even boil an egg and so she certainly couldn't cook a whole meal.
Davina can't even boil an egg ___________________________ a whole meal.
Kelvin should call in a builder to repair those broken roof tiles.
Kelvin should _____________________________by a builder.
You must never let anyone else use your Identity Card.
Under ________let anyone else use your Identity Card.
I can't deny that I was embarrassed to be given the award.
There's _______embarrassment at being given the award.
5. Evaluate the results of testing your grammar knowledge base. Is there any room for improvement here? Why (not)?
1. Prepare in advance for the Speaking Part of an international test. Use the following materials and answer the questions in written form.
A.Why might studying be important for these people?
How easy is it to study in these situations?
B. What skills might the people need to be successful in these forms of entertainment? How easy might it be to develop these skills?
ARE YOU READY TO GO INTERNATIONAL?
CLASS 4: “LABORATORY WORK”
1.Watch an educational video that gives you tips on how to pass the speaking stage of an international exam successfully. Take note of everything said.
2.Organize a session similar to an international examination format. You may choose the Speaking Part as your best option. Do it on a rotation principle in groups of three or four. Evaluate the results.
3.In-class writing. Produce a summary view on the material of classes 1 – 4. The text should contain no less than 300 words, have a memorable title, and be finished in 30 minutes.