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Topic 2.3




1. Work in pairs. Watch the educational video from Cambridge and summarize all the relevant aspects of the examination for the Certificate in Advanced English (CAE).


2. Work in small groups. Talk about whether youd like to take such an exam in the future. Why (not)?


3. Read the description of the examination format and say which the areas are where you feel more at ease with any high-level examination task. If you had to pass the above exam tomorrow, which grade would be yours?



It is the advanced general English examination provided by the University of Cambridge ESOL examinations. The examination comprises five parts: Reading (1 hour and 15 minutes), Writing (1 hour and 30 minutes), Use of English (1 hour), Listening (40 minutes), Speaking (15 minutes). Each component carries 20% of the total marks. There are three pass grades (A, B and C) and certificates are awarded to candidates who achieve these grades. Candidates who achieve a grade D or E are judged not to have reached the required standard for CAE. In the Common EuropeanFramework of Reference for Languages, CAE is ranked at C1 and C2 levels. Candidates who have obtained an A grade are awarded a C2 certificate, those obtaining grade B or C, are awarded a certificate at C1. Like all the other Cambridge exams, once the exam is passed the qualification never expires. CAE is considered to be very valuable, and is a required qualification for international students applying to many British universities. As of March 2010, the following grading scale applies: Grade A 80% and above, Grade B 75% to 79%, Grade C 60% to 74%.


4. Familiarize yourselves with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Learn about the requirements you must meet as a professional educator. Are you there, at the required level?


Abbreviated as CEFR, the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages is a guideline used to describe achievements of learners of foreign languages across Europe and, increasingly, in other countries. It was put together by the Council of Europe as the main part of the project "Language Learning for European Citizenship" between 1989 and 1996. Its main aim is to provide a method of learning, teaching and assessing which applies to all languages in Europe. In November 2001 a European Union Council Resolution recommended using the CEFR to set up systems of validation of language ability. The six reference levels are becoming widely accepted as the European standard for grading an individual's language proficiency. The Common European Framework divides learners into three broad divisions which can be divided into six levels: A Basic User (A1 Breakthrough or beginner, A2 Waystage or elementary), B Independent User (B1 Threshold or intermediate, B2 Vantage or upper intermediate), C Proficient User (C1 Effective Operational Proficiency or advanced, C2 Mastery or proficiency). The CEFR describes what a learner is supposed to be able to do in reading, listening, speaking and writing at each level. The general description of what learners should be able to do is as follows: (1) they can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read, (2) they can summarize information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation, and (3) can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in the most complex situations.



5. As practice makes perfect, lets do Reading Parts 1 and 2 of a sample CAE examination test. Youve got no more than 40 minutes to do both.




You are going to read three extracts which are all concerned in some way with electronics. For questions 1-6, choose the answer (, , or D) which you think fits best according to the text.


Labeling someone a 'video-gamer' conjures up images of obsessed teenagers sitting in darkened rooms, faces illuminated only by the glow of displays, and young enough for repetitive strain injury to heal quickly. Yet despite there being a grain of truth in it, the stereotype belongs to a bygone age. The fact is that video games are no longer the exclusive domain of the young male population. Young females are playing in growing numbers, but so too are adults.

More mature adults who've left behind the 18-34 age bracket so cherished by conventional games marketers, are often simply early gamers who have grown up. They want to keep on playing, but have evolved beyond first-person shooter games such as Doom and its descendants. 'Fun shouldn't be difficult,' says George Harrison, Nintendo's senior vice president of marketing and corporate communications. 'People are looking for 15 minutes of diversion, often with their family.' It's this realization that has the veteran video-game firm rethinking both its hardware and software offerings.


1. In the first paragraph, the writer suggests that the stereotype of the 'video-gamer'

A was to a certain extent accurate.

harmed the image of the games.

was always damaging to teenagers.

D became outdated almost immediately.


2. In the second paragraph, the writer is

A criticizing certain attitudes.

predicting long-term trends.

reporting a change of policy.

D justifying a continued interest.




A lot of the time I don't know where my ideas come from. It's not as if I see a picture gradually forming - it's like 'ping', a picture is suddenly there, and it can make you feel slightly out of control of the process. It can be quite disturbing sometimes. But I find the computer game an incredibly creative medium. It brings together so many different disciplines that you would think are totally incompatible: there's the logic of programming, mathematics and physics, mixed with entertainment, storytelling, narrative, excitement and the emotions you feel when you are playing a game. I have a vast number of little notebooks for work, full of scribbles and some text, although I'm not in any way artistic - I can't draw or sketch - and being dyslexic, I find communicating via a written medium very difficult.

The big picture ideas are easy. The devil is in the detail. The real challenge always comes about six months down the line when you have to design all the minutiae of the game. You have to consider things like how many pieces of information players can take before they'll get confused and frustrated.

I really believe the only difference between a creative person and the non-creative person is that creative people tend not to have a little voice in their head saying, 'That's not going to work, that's a stupid idea.' People who are very creative just have a ridiculous amount of confidence. I don't believe they are geniuses. If you look at any children when they're playing, they are making up scenarios and fighting battles of good and evil - huge epic stories with just a couple of sticks, a ball and a sandpit. I just think creative people tend not to lose that. They tend not to get that adult voice.


3. What does Peter find hardest when designing a new computer game?

A coming up with original ideas

combining skills from different disciplines

working out exactly how it will work in practice

D explaining his ideas to others involved in the process


4. In the third paragraph, Peter is suggesting that creative people

A rely greatly on common sense.

look to traditional tales for inspiration.

are in danger of becoming over-confident.

D have a streak of brilliance that can't be explained




By 'Christovsky' FUN: *****


Sam and Max's long-awaited return to the adventure game format is a refreshing and thoroughly enjoyable affair. The change to 3D graphics is remarkably successful, as is the implementation of a simplified point-and-click system that shaves off all the superfluous options and puts an end to the tedious keyboard / joypad control of the 3D games. Add to this a catchy score of jazzy musical numbers to add atmosphere to the locations and you've got a game that looks, feels and sounds utterly fantastic.

Each episode has perhaps 2-3 hours' worth of playing time in it, and feels like a quick gaming fix rather than something more substantial (much like comparing TV episodes to a film, in fact). Extended play, however, in the form of secret or optional jokes and things to do, can prolong each episode's lifetime significantly. The format allows the introduction of several very funny and well- designed secondary characters who achieve a good involvement in the plot, but each of the new locations (which are, nevertheless, equally entertaining and original) is available for one episode only, so puzzles cannot cross over between them as they would in a larger, full-length game. This unfortunately makes the puzzles feel less intricate and less challenging than veterans will have come to expect, although they are just as zany and still require some lateral thinking.

The humour is almost spot-on. Sam's deadpan and Max's craziness bounce off each other brilliantly, although it's a pity that Max seems to get the majority of the punch lines. Still, these exchanges, mixed with some highly original characters, places and scenarios, make for a truly hilarious game.


5. The reviewer says that the game is like a TV programme because of

A the way it is organized.

the overall look and feel.

the strength of the characterization.

D the players' level of involvement in the plot.

6. What aspect of the game does the reviewer criticize?

A the choice of locations

the predictable use of humour

the undemanding level of the puzzles

D the large number of unnecessary options.



You are going to read an extract from a newspaper article about a novelist. Six paragraphs have been removed from the extract. Choose from the paragraphs A-G the one which fits each gap (7-12). There is one extra paragraph which you do not need to use.


Would you give up a dull but secure job to fulfill your real ambition? Susannah Bates did.


We last interviewed Susannah Bates five years ago, just after the publication of her second novel in little more than twelve months. And then it went a bit quiet. Her third tale is now out so why the long gap? Well, we need to rewind to January six years ago. In that month, Susannah rekindled a romance with a former boyfriend from her days at university. Her first book, Charmed Lives, was out not long after and pretty quickly it seemed life was imitating art.



The sequel, also featuring a city lawyer, was by this time pretty much done and dusted and would appear on the bookshelves the following spring. 'I'd already done a bit of work on the next one, but not a huge amount. But when I did get down to working on it, it didn't come as easily as the others. They came out quite quickly, and then there's been this gap.'



The successful publication of three novels, with one to come as part of her current publishing deal, certainly vindicates her decision to turn her back on the law after two years at law school, and a year working in London. Wisdom is about realizing what works for you, and she hasn't looked back.



'What's more, when I was trying to get published and taken on by an agent, I was treated more seriously because I was a lawyer; I suspect because it shows you can put your head down and do hard work. But I eventually decided I just wasn't temperamentally suited to it. I came to specialize in banking law. They didn't ever say you had to be that good with numbers, but I think it would've helped!' she laughs.



Those who stay in the industry do it because they love that side of it. They get a real buzz and think "This deal's worth eight million" or "The deal we're working on is going to be on the front pages of the business section." For me, it could have been eight dollars. Eight million? It wasn't that big an issue. It didn't give me the same thrill.'



'I never thought writing was a realistic option, especially my sort of writing, because so many people fail at it. Maybe it's my upbringing, but I really felt it was important, leaving university, to earn money, and I didn't see how I could ever do that by writing. I think that was the real explanation, and I wanted to be independent. I also thought that whatever I did, I'd put my head down and come to enjoy it; I didn't realize I'd find the law quite so dry!'



But that's all in the past. Thoughts for the future centre on a fourth novel. There's no title as yet, but there are many thoughts swirling and settling in Susannah's mind.



'I was incredibly naive to think that initial feeling would change, and I took a while to realize I was hitting my head against a brick wall. Maybe it was because there's a part of me that likes ticking boxes and jumping through hoops and getting approval, and there's a lot of that in the law.'

It featured a successful highflying young lawyer who has everything except a life outside the office until she meets her beau. Susannah was a lawyer who gave up the law in order to write, and who then met hers. They got engaged as spring turned into summer, and before the end of the year, were married.

'It's as if I suddenly saw the light,' she says. 'I've got a friend from that time and I hate to think what he's earning compared to what I'm earning! But I don't really regret giving it up. I don't regret having done it, either; I think it's a really great grounding, knowing what it is to be a professional, and I've used aspects of that in my writing.'


'My mother's quite realistic about decisions and I remember her saying when I was wondering whether to go through with it: "Write a short story, send it to a magazine, see how it gets on."'


To an outsider, therefore, it seems a bit surprising that Susannah joined the profession in the first place. As an English student at university, she co-wrote a couple of plays performed at a national festival; one was nominated for an award. So why didn't she follow a literary star?


That department appealed because she liked the amusing people there. 'You could have fun flicking elastic bands at everyone or sending a fake email from someone else's computer, but at the end of the day you had to go back to your desk and look at those rows of figures,' she smiles.


'When I'm working on a novel, I need to shut myself away. It's quite a sad, lonely activity,' she laughs. 'But when life's looking up and you're busy and have someone around, you're very easily distracted. It took a long time to find my rhythm again.'

7. Check on the results of your work based on Reading Parts 1 and 2 of a sample CAE examination test. Are you happy with them? Why (not)? What do you need to self-improve if necessary?



1. Do the remaining parts (3-4) of the Reading Comprehension Test.


You are going to read a newspaper article. For questions 13-19, choose the answer (, , or D) which you think fits best according to the text.




(1) The concept of the Renaissance man or woman, someone who has acquired success or proficiency in several fields, holds a deep appeal in our multitasking present. This, after all, is the age of the juggler. Given the limitless opportunities available in our complex society, the notion of pursuing just one career seems a bit pedestrian. Antonia Campbell Hughes, currently starring on the Dublin stage in the play Roberto Zucco, appears to be the consummate Renaissance woman. Into her short career she has crammed stints as a fashion designer (flogging frocks both under her own name and as part of a diffusion line for the retail chain Topshop), a Paris catwalk model and a star of the big and small screens.

(2) The industries in which Campbell Hughes chooses to work may seem disparate, but they have one trait in common: glamour. She may, perhaps, be a member line 30 of the slasher brigade: an actress-slash-model-slash-designer who is eager for fame and happy to pursue any route to its attainment. The key distinction between the Renaissance woman and the slasher is devotion to one's pursuits. So is Antonia dilettante or devotee?

(3) The woman herself insists that her careers have flowed organically from each other. "People never really see the connection between fashion and drama, but I think there's a huge connection. I saw fashion as creating a scene and a setting and characters, building the entire cast effectively. All my collections were always about creating a mood and an atmosphere and a character. Fashion seemed the most direct avenue. I never understood how people who are creative are satisfied with one outlet, one medium. I always did all kinds of things. In Paris, we didn't have enough money to do catwalk shows, so we'd take gallery spaces and set up a soiree-type thing. You put the various pieces on mannequins and have installation videos and all that kind of vibe. I'd do favours for friends as well and act in their videos.'

(4) Antonia was born in Derry, in the west of Ireland, but her parents left the country when she was two, and she grew up in Switzerland and the US. She moved to Dublin in her mid-teens but didn't find the school syllabus particularly absorbing. 'I didn't go much. I was very much a rebellious teen, and I wanted to sing in bands and travel the world and be away from my normal environment. I thought art school was the best avenue, so I went to New York for a bit and got into fashion.'

(5) Her move into acting was almost accidental. 'A man called John McGuire stopped me on the street and asked me to do a music video, some little kind of ambient trip-hop thing,' she says. 'That made me quite uncertain as to which avenue I was going down. From there I very much fell into television, into comedy. I just went for an audition and got a part in Jack Dee's sitcom Lead Balloon; I never had a hankering to do British TV and didn't know much about the show. But I think the comedy field in British television is quite strong, and I really respect Jack's work and it's such a lovely programme to work on. It's very scripted, but the writers are open to suggestion. If things crop up on the day, they're very much incorporated, which is a lovely way to work.

(6) In person, Antonia comes across as charmingly childlike, continually fidgeting and changing conversational tack mid-sentence. This impression is compounded by her elfin appearance few might guess she has been on the planet for a quarter-century. She's happy to play up this image, and has been known to spend parties sitting under tables, affecting a girlish blitheness. This insouciance, contrived or otherwise, does not prevent her from worrying about being typecast as a comic artist. 'I wanted to do this play because it's a completely different approach from comedy.'

(7) Everyone has a friend who can't decide what to do with their life. While many twenty-somethings trek through Southeast Asia in search of meaning, Antonia, following her nomadic childhood, is seemingly keen to travel in other ways. Even when describing her current passion, her mind is never far from her next move. 'I'm very much obsessed with what I'm doing at the moment,' she says. 'That's the beauty of acting: you're working on a different, completely diverse project every given month. I'm quite interested in writing also, but I'd like to do more theatre before I start writing plays.' Antonia Campbell Hughes' career has been flamboyant and convoluted, and she has a taste for the bizarre and grotesque. Her future career, we can only assume, will follow paths as engagingly meandering as those that have brought her to the Dublin stage.


13. In the first paragraph, the writer suggests that

A it may be unwise to try out too many different careers.

people who are very focused on one career may appear dull.

to succeed in life you need to learn a range of complex skills.

D a wide range of work experience is good training for an actress.


14. The writer uses the term 'slasher brigade' (paragraph 2)

A to suggest how acting and fashion have a lot in common.

to emphasize how versatile people like Antonia have to be.

to show where he thinks Antonia's true motivation comes from.

D to describe people who may lack Antonia's level of commitment.


15. When talking about her work as a fashion designer, Antonia is explaining

A how financial necessity led her to seek acting work.

why it was impossible to get her designs noticed.

how she approached the creation of a collection.

D why she found the profession unsatisfying.


16. How did Antonia feel whilst at school in Dublin?

A unsure about the type of education she needed

unstimulated by what she was expected to study

unsettled by her educational experiences elsewhere

D disappointed by the way creative subjects were taught


17. What does Antonia say about her decision to do television work in Britain?

A She was attracted to it by the opportunities to improvise.

She liked the fact that the actors also write the scripts.

It was the kind of thing she had always wanted to try.

D It was something that she got into almost by chance.


18. What does the phrase This insouciance' (paragraph 6) refer to?

A Antonia's apparently carefree attitude

Antonia's professional reputation

Antonia's physical appearance

D Antonia's way of speaking


19. In the final paragraph, we learn that Antonia

A plans to travel before taking on more work.

has finally settled into a career that suits her.

feels ready to move on to a completely new creative activity.

D gets pleasure from the variety offered by her current occupation.


You are going to read an article about the adventure sport known as canyoning. For questions 20-34, choose from the sections (A-E). The sections may be chosen more than once.


Which section mentions ...

a variant of the sport that is less challenging? 20 ____

a way of mastering the basic skills required by the sport? 21 ____

an example of why the sport demands both courage and determination? 22 ____

artificial aids that have been introduced for the benefit of participants? 23 ____

climatic conditions affecting the availability of venues for the sport? 24 ____

growing awareness of the sport in certain places? 25 ____

how some of the best locations for the sport were discovered? 26 ____

a specially adapted piece of gear that is available for participants? 27 ____

the type of people who pioneered the sport? 28 ____
the reasons why certain types of people are attracted to the sport? 29 30____

the type of people for whom the sport would be unsuitable? 31 32____

the aim of each canyoning expedition? 33 ____

professional guidance in obtaining the most appropriate equipment? 34 ____




After a long, hard week crunching numbers, writing up reports, doing assignments or whatever it is you do, don't you sometimes feel like chucking yourself off a cliff? Well, you're not alone. There's even a name for people with such impulses: they're called canyoneers. Canyoning, which was established as a sport around 15 years ago by a few fearless thrill-seekers in France and Spain, is being adopted as the latest way for stressed-out high achievers to purge themselves of the pressures of work or study for the simple reason that nothing clears the mind better than the prospect of leaping off the side of a gorge into a pool of limpid, mountain-fresh water which can be as much as 20 metres beneath your feet. There is, however, more to canyoning than that: it's a true adventure sport that regularly embraces the disciplines of hiking, climbing, abseiling and swimming, and it's certainly not for the faint of heart or weak of limb.


A typical canyoneers outfit costs around £1,250 and comprises a high-quality wet suit, neoprene socks and gloves, a safety helmet fitted with a waterproof headlight and a perforated canyoning backpack designed to let out all the weighty water that accumulates on the way down. You'll also need a decent first aid kit (just in case) and top-notch climbing equipment including ropes and a harness, and last but not least, a few equally adventurous friends. Because if there's one thing canyoning isn't, it's a sport for the lone wolf. Although it's difficult to define precisely, canyoning basically involves making your way to the top of an extremely long and high gorge and then traversing your way down to the bottom by the best means possible - which usually involves a combination of abseiling, climbing, jumping, sliding and swimming. One thing it always requires, however, is commitment - because once you're halfway down a creek it's often far more difficult to turn back and try to reach the safety of flat terrain than it is to keep on going. Even though going on might involve an abseil down a sheer rock face or a seemingly interminable creep around a ledge barely 15 centimetres wide.



In the early days it was very much a voyage of discovery, with pioneering canyoneers seeking out interesting looking gorges and simply going for it to see if there was a navigable route from top to bottom. Since then, however, many of those gorges have been opened up by professional guides who have established safer, but still exciting, routes and have also equipped the rocks with climbing bolts, hooks and rings to which visiting canyoneers can rope up. Typical of the type of people who are becoming hooked on the sport is Christine Pasquier, who works in the luxury goods industry. 'When I started about fifteen years ago it didn't have a name and it wasn't regarded as a sport,' she says. 'It just involved people walking through fairly shallow canyons, usually without any protective clothing. About eight years ago, however, it really began to develop, particularly in France and Spain, where everyone now recognises the word "canyoning".'



Pierre-Yves Commanay, the UK operations director for a leading IT consultancy, agrees that it's a thrilling thing for people weighed down by responsibilities to do: 'Having something to do at weekends and during vacations that requires total focus is a great way of clearing your head; he says. 'In Europe, canyoning is largely a spring and early summer activity because many of the canyons in southern France and Spain have dried out later on. However, there are established canyoning centres as far afield as Madagascar and Guadeloupe, so it can be quite wide-ranging, depending on what you enjoy. You can use canyoning as a reason to have a weekend away or as a way of seeing the world.'



If the thought of spending an entire day getting exhausted and soaking wet and frightening yourself silly appeals, the first step into canyoning is to get some expert training. Firms such as Espace Evasion will not only guide you through some of Europe's most breathtakingly beautiful canyons, they'll also provide you with all the gear, and teach you all the essential roping, abseiling and descent techniques to get you started. If you're UK-based, however, there are various organisations that offer the opportunity to have a go at canyoning and a similar activity called gorge walking, which is a drier version of canyoning. In neither case will the experience be as dramatic or thrilling as you will find at a location such as Sierra de Guara in Spain, but at least youll have a chance to discover that canyoning is not for you or, more likely, that you think it's simply gorgeous.




Topic 2.3




1. Watch the candidate, a young woman from Syria, doing the Speaking stage of another international standardized test of English language proficiency. Do you think the young woman is doing fine?


2. Read the description of the examination format and say what you think might make it so very popular all over the world.



International English Language Testing System is an international standardized test of English language proficiency. It is jointly managed by University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations and the British Council and was established in 1989. There are two versions of the IELTS. The Academic Version is intended for those who want to enroll in universities and other institutions of higher education and for professionals such as medical doctors and nurses who want to study or practice in an English-speaking country. The General Training Version is intended for those planning to undertake non-academic training or to gain work experience, or for immigration purposes. IELTS is accepted by most Australian, British, Canadian, Irish, New Zealand and South African academic institutions, over 3,000 academic institutions in the United States, and various professional organizations. It is also a requirement for immigration to Australia, New Zealand and Canada. No minimum score is required to pass the test. An IELTS result or Test Report Form is issued to all candidates with a score from 1 (no knowledge) to 9 (expert user) and each institution sets a different threshold. Institutions are advised not to consider valid a report older than two years, unless the user proves that he has worked to maintain his level. In 2007, IELTS tested over a million candidates in a single 12-month period for the first time ever, making it the world's most popular English language test for higher education and immigration. In 2009, 1.4 million candidates took the IELTS test in over 130 countries, in 2011 1.7 million candidates.


3. Read the information about another international-level test called TOEFL. Is there any difference between CAE, IELTS, and TOEFL formats?


The Test of English as a Foreign Language or TOEFL is a test of an individual's ability to use and understand English in an academic setting. It was developed to address the problem on ensuring English language proficiency for non-native speakers wishing to study at American universities. It has become an admission requirement for non-native English speakers at many English-speaking colleges and universities. A TOEFL score is valid for two years and then will no longer be officially reported. The test was originally developed at the Center for Applied Linguistics under the direction of Stanford University applied linguistics professor Dr. Charles A. Ferguson. The TOEFL was first administered in 1964 by the Modern Language Association. In late 2005, the Internet-based Test (iBT) has progressively replaced both the computer-based tests (CBT) and paper-based tests (PBT), although paper-based testing is still used in select areas. The iBT has been introduced in phases, with the United States, Canada, France, Germany, and Italy in 2005 and the rest of the world in 2006, with test centers added regularly. Although initially, the demand for test seats was higher than availability, and candidates had to wait for months, it is now possible to take the test within one to four weeks in most countries. The four-hour test consists of four sections, each measuring one of the basic language skills (while some tasks require integrating multiple skills) and all tasks focus on language used in an academic, higher-education environment. Note-taking is allowed during the iBT.


4. Watch the educational video which might inform you about the differences between the two exam formats IELTS and TOEFL. List the most relevant differences that are critical for success in both exams.



5. As practice makes perfect, lets do Listening Section A C of a sample TOEFL examination test. Youve got no more than 40 minutes to do it. Mind that what you are going to do is the TOEFL paper-based Test (PBT) which is being phased out beginning in mid-2012. So, it is TOEFL listening tasks what they used to be. The Listening section used to consist of 3 parts. The first one contained 30 questions about short conversations. The second had 8 questions about longer conversations. The last part asked 12 questions about lectures or talks. Lets begin then.



1. (A) Drive the woman to the store.

(B) Move the woman's car.

(C) Get his car out of the woman's way.

(D) Park his car in the driveway.

2. (A) He agrees with the woman's choice.

(B) He doesn't want spicy food.

(C) He wants the salad to be fresh.

(D) Garlic is his favorite flavor.

3. (A) He's not the one to blame.

(B) Somebody just left.

(C) He has been looking for the key.

(D) Somebody is knocking at the door.

4. (A) Wipe the snow off his boots.

(B) Turn on the radio.

(C) Unpack his suitcase.

(D) Take his boots with him.

5. (A) She doesn't think the news is bad.

(B) She heard the news quite recently.

(C) She is the only one who has heard the news.

(D) She found the newspaper article earlier.

6. (A) She took a lot of photographs.

(B) She'd like to take many more vacations.

(C) She missed taking many of the pictures she wanted.

(D) She spent too much money on her vacation.

7. (A) Driving would be cheaper than taking the train.

(B) The train is faster than traveling by car.

(C) They should cancel the trip.

(D) It would be a good idea to start driving early.

8. (A) She's studying for an accounting exam.

(B) She's been working in the library a lot.

(C) She'll be going to the library after her exams.

(D) She has more exams than he does.

9. (A) He's already too hot.

(B) He hasn't received a fuel bill yet.

(C) He can't afford to turn the heat up.

(D) He has no more sweaters.

10. (A) Drive to work.

(B) Go to the golf course.

(C) Try to fix the car.

(D)Take care of himself.


11. (A) She probably won't go to the dinner.

(B) She doesn't know what time the dinner is.

(C) The dinner won't last too long.

(D) It's time that Arthur retired.


12. (A) He'll telephone again at lunchtime.

(B) He didn't have time for lunch.

(C) He had wanted to ask the woman out.

(D) He didn't have the woman's phone number.

13. (A) He lives near the woman.

(B) The woman should come to his house.

(C) The woman should take today off.

(D) He can't keep their appointment.

14.(A) The bookshelf won't fit in the kitchen.

(B) The man will give the woman some books.

(C) The woman will help the man soon.

(D) The man doesn't know where to put the bookshelf.

15. (A) Put a stamp on his letter.

(B)Make his letter shorter.

(C)Keep working on the letter.

(D)Send the letter as it is.


16.(A) He's very hungry.

(B) He doesn't like fish.

(C) He doesn't have much appetite.

(D) He likes to eat most things.

17.(A) Find a part-time job as a tutor.

(B) Meet him after work to study.

(C) Use her salary to pay the tuition.

(D) Allow herself plenty of time for studying.

18.(A) She wanted the man to read the book.

(B) She no longer needed the book.

(C) She had been looking for the book.

(D) She thought the man's book was wonderful.

19.(A) She had a hard day yesterday.

(B) She needs to make more coffee.

(C) She drinks too much coffee.

(D) She wasn't able to see him yesterday.

20. (A) He used insect spray to control the mosquitoes.

(B) He was wearing short sleeves when he got bitten.

(C) He finds working in the garden relaxing.

(D) Some plants in the garden irritated his skin.


21.(A) The audience seemed to like the concert.

(B) She was satisfied with her seat.

(C) More people attended the concert than expected.

(D) She was pleased to be asked to perform.

22.(A) She got caught in the rain.

(B) She took the wrong bus.

(C) Some tea spilled on her.

(D)Her laundry didn't dry.

23.(A) The tutor wasn't seriously hurt.

(B) She could tutor the man in math.

(C) It's a good idea to get a tutor.

(D) She's sure Professor Anderson is a good tutor.

24.(A) He doesn't like the newspaper job.

(B) He isn't enthusiastic about his job.

(C) He will leave his job if he's not promoted.

(D) His job is going well.

25.(A) Laura probably spoke with Donald.

(B) He'll give the message to Laura.

(C) He took a message for Laura.

(D) Laura wasn't able to reach Donald.


26.(A) She promises to help the man learn physics.

(B) She can't find the article she has to read.

(C) She found the conclusions to be very promising.

(D) She disagrees with the article's logic.

27.(A) She doesn't know much about painting.

(B) She should have started sooner.

(C) She ought to know when the class begins.

(D) She worries too much.

28.(A) Learn more about caring for cats before bringing one home.

(B) Choose a good name for the kitten.

(C) Give the cat away since he can't keep it.

(D) Keep the kitten in his dorm room.

29.(A) They don't usually get much mail.

(B) They just moved to a new address.

(C) They pick up their mail at the post office.

(D) They are looking forward to receiving the letter.

30.(A) He goes to every movie that comes out.

(B) He would go with her to the movie.

(C) He had already seen the movie.

(D) He wasn't going to go to the movie.

6. Check on your progress in Part A. Do Parts B and C of the Listening Section.


31.(A) The students needed off-campus jobs.

(B) The theater department needed more talented students.

(C) The opera company was looking for volunteers.

(D) The new dean thought it would provide good experience for the students.

32.(A) Work with an opera troupe.

(B) Work part-time for the dean.

(C) Perform on the radio.

(D) Submit their suggestions to the dean.

33.(A) A good singing voice.

(B) A commitment to the project for two semesters.

(C) An academic concentration in theater arts.

(D) A certain grade point average.

34.(A) To choose a topic for a term paper.

(B) To type some research materials.

(C) To find material not available at the main library.

(D) To learn to use the computers there.


35.(A) An analysis of early presidential elections.

(B) A comparison of political journals.

(C) The use of computers in calculating election results.

(D) The impact of television on recent presidential elections.

36.(A) It is quite general.

(B) Most of the information he needs will be found in newspapers.

(C) She thinks he should change it.

(D) It should take a very short time to find material on it.

37.(A) Travel to that library to get it.

(B) Pay to use it.

(C) Read it in the graduate school library.

(D) Order the material from the publisher.

38.(A) Advice about landscaping.

(B) Hints about saving to buy a house.

(C) Photographs of the homes of famous people.

(D) Plans for houses.



39.(A) Nineteenth-century American painting.

(B) American architectural history.

(C) Introduction to economics.

(D) Eighteenth-century American society.

40.(A) There was a shortage of architects.

(B) They included plans for elaborate houses.

(C) Builders could not work without one.

(D) They were relatively inexpensive.

41. (A) People who restore old houses.

(B)People who sell houses.

(C)People who design new houses.

(D) People who want to buy a house.

42.(A) To study its geography.

(B) To help at an archaeological dig.

(C) To take a vacation with friends.

(D) To do research for a physics project.

43.(A) Its shape.

(B) Its size.

(C) Its location.

(D) Its brightness.

44.(A) Smaller circles.

(B) Bands of color.

(C) A large white disc.

(D) Curved legs of light.


45. (A) It had never been seen before.

(B) It was in the student's imagination.

(C) It would stay there for days.

(D) It was fairly common.

46. (A) A halo.

(B)A sunspot.

(C)A sun dog.

(D)A rainbow.

47. (A) Nursing students.

(B) Undergraduate college students.

(C) The graduating class at a medical school.

(D) First-year medical students.


48.(A) More people would apply to medical school.

(B) Understaffed areas would gain more physicians.

(C) Students would finish medical school in three years.

(D) More students would enter specialty areas.

49.(A) Practical experience.

(B) Extra income.

(C) Course credit.

(D) Tuition reduction.

50.(A) It's difficult to get to know one's patients.

(B) Income tends to be relatively low.

(C) It's difficult to gain the respect of the community.

(D) There is very little business for specialists


7. Analyze the results of your performance in the Listening Section of the TOEFL test. Share opinions on your strengths and weaknesses reflected in the test scores.



1. Do the Writing tasks of CAE examination.



You must answer this question. Write your answer in 180-220 words in an appropriate style.


It is a tradition at the college where you study English to hold an end of year activity for all the students. The principal of the college has sent round an email asking students to write a proposal for this year's activity, in which they should explain why last year's activities were less successful, suggest new activities for this year and provide reasons for their recommendations. Using the extract from the principal's email and the advertisements for different activities on which you have made some notes, write your proposal.


Last year's activity was less successful than usual because it was held in the afternoon, did not include food and there was only one activity provided which not everyone enjoyed. Although the budget cannot be increased, I want this year's activity to be much more successful, and hope for some original proposals!


Write your proposal for the principal.




Write an answer to one of the questions 2-4 in this part. Write your answer in 220-260 words in an appropriate style.


In class, you have been discussing ways in which tourism can have positive
and negative effects on a town or country. Your teacher has asked you to write
an essay based on your discussions, called 'Tourism, it's always a good thing'.
Your essay should include the economy, environment and transport.


Write your essay.





Topic 2.3



1. Work in pairs. Discuss the wild idea of going to a far-away land to teach English there. Do you think it possible, theoretically and/or practically?


2. Watch British educators teaching classes of international students. Discuss various aspects of the presentation including some or all of the following.


(1) The teachers skills.

(2) The students responses.

(3) The overall approach to teaching.

(4) The effect it might produce.


3. Read the description below. Get to know what you must have to be able to shine as an international educator.



The acronym in the title comes from the Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults. Today, though, the name has been changed to the Certificate in teaching English to speakers of other languages. It is an internationally recognized professional credential for teachers of English as a foreign language. CELTA is a common requirement for those entering the field of English language teaching. It is a particularly popular credential among people who wish to travel and teach English around the world. However, it is also held by people who intend to teach only in the country where they trained, and do not intend to travel.

The full-time CELTA course runs for four to five weeks; it can also be taken part-time over several weeks or months. CELTA courses are run by many different institutions, whereas the courses are validated and certificates are issued by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, a part of the University of Cambridge.

The CELTA is awarded upon passing the course, which includes six hours of assessed teaching practice to real EFL classes at least two different levels of ability. The course grade is determined primarily by the performance of the candidates in this teaching practice; there are also four written assignments due throughout the course, which are graded on a pass/fail basis only. The grades awarded are Pass, Pass B and Pass A.

The full-time four-week course is very intensive. Even the part-time version of the course can take up more time than a full-time job for many candidates, especially those with no teaching background.

There are over 286 approved CELTA centers in 54 countries, providing almost 900 CELTA courses every year. In Belarus, CELTA courses are available at the Minsk-based International House teaching center. Any information you might need professionally is found online at http://www.ih.by/teacher-training/celta.html.


4. Test your grammar knowledge base. The following tasks below are taken from a sample CAE examination paper.



For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer (, , or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the exam you mark your answers on a separate answer sheet.

Example: 0 A amount quantity volume D extent


Date: 2016-04-22; view: 5074

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