Samuel Colt was an American. He lived in the 19th century. In 1836 he designed and patented a pistol. It was a pistol with a revolving chamber that could fire six bullets one after another. It was the first pistol of its kind. Later came along many other pistols with six bullets.
Rudolf Diesel was a German engineer. He was born in 1858 and died in 1913. In 1897 he invented a new internal combustion engine. The engine is known as a diesel and it began a transport revolution in cars, trucks, trains and ships. The main advantage of diesels is that they run on rather cheap fuel.
Samuel Finley Morse was born in 1791. He died in 1872. He was a portrait painter. Then he became an inventor. For twelve years he tried to perfect the telegraph and was finally successful. Later he invented the telegraphic dot-and-dash alphabet. Now it is known as Morse code. Morse code was not the only one in America at that time. There were some others. But now we only use Morse code all over the world.
Charles Mackintosh lived from 1766 to 1843. He lived in Scotland and was a chemist by profession. He worked in the textile industry. In 1823 he developed a rubber solution. This rubber solution was used for raincoat production. Raincoats with this rubber solution didn't allow water to penetrate. These raincoats were called mackintoshes. Now people all over the world use them in spring and in autumn.
Charles Rolls was born in 1881 in Great Britain. He died in 1910. He was an aristocrat and a businessman. He was especially interested in cars. Once he met another enthusiast for cars, Henry Royce. Henry Royce was a famous car engineer. They decided to design the most comfortable and reliable car. At the beginning of the 20th century it seemed to be a fantasy. But they worked hard and at last in 1907 they created the world-famous Rolls-Royce car. It was so comfortable and reliable that one of the models of Rolls-Royce cars, "Silver Ghost", remained unchanged for 20 years since 1907.
Gottlieb Daimler and Charles Benz were two inventors. They lived in Germany. They were both interested in car production. At the end of the 19th century each of them designed a car. At the same time they organized two independent firms to produce them.
All the cars produced by the firm of Daimler were called "Mercedes". Mercedes was the name of the daughter of one of the stockholders of the firm. This man saved the firm of Daimler from the financial crisis at the beginning of the 20th century. But after World War I the firm of Daimler met with financial difficulties again. This time it had to join the firm of Benz. Since that time all the cars produced by the firm “Daimler-Benz” have been called “Mercedes-Benz”.
to differentiate – to distinguish;
the first part of a website’s aqddress, which usually begins with ‘www.’ and ends with ‘com’, ‘.org’, ’uk’, or other letters that show which country the website is from – domain.
II. True or False?
1. The symbol @ meant the only preposition on the keyboard before Ray started to use it (F).
2. It took Ray too much time to decide to use @ (F).
3. He has forgotten his first message (T).
4. Ray’s idea made him very rich (F).
Reading the article
spam – email messages that a computer user has not asked for and does not want to read, for example from someone who is advertising something;
spambots – a special program, which looks for new emails in the Internet for sending spams;
to distort – to change the appearance, sound, or shape of something so that it is strange or unclear;
to apart – here to distinguish, to differentiate.
The lesson plan
1. Lead-in (5-7 min)
2. Reading (15 min)
3. Listening (15 min)
4. Presentation (40 min)
To extract – to remove an object or a substance from somewhere or something, especially with difficulty;
Tumor – a mass of diseased cells in your body that have divided and increased too quickly;
Application – here practical us;
Accomplished – very skillful.
to drip – to let liquid fall in drops;
backer – someone who supports a plan, especially by providing money;
to commit – to say that someone will definitely do something or must do something.
Interviewer : How did you get the idea for the Anywayup cup?
Mandy Haberman: I first had the idea for a totally non-spill cup when I saw a littlle girl
drinking from a conventional trainer cup. She dropped the cup and her
mother dived to catch it before it hit the floor. This made me think that it
must be possible to make a cup that it would close and wouldn’t spill or
drip when the child wasn’t drinking from it.
Interviewer: How did you go about producing the cup?
Mandy Haberman: Well, I had some experience of working with plastics, and, starting in my
kitchen, I made a series of prototypes. After about a year I was ready to
look for a financial backer to develop and sell the product.
Interviewer: How did you go about finding one?
Mandy Haberman: I had applied for a patent before I went to see possible backers, and over
a period of a couple of years I showed my prototypes to about 20
Interviewer: Aha. How did companies respond when you went to see them?
Mandy Haberman: Responses varied. Typically, companies wanted to hold on to the
prototypes, while they assessed the product. Months would go by and
I’d becomevery nervous about it until finally I would demand that they
returned the product.
Mandy Haberman: Those that were interested were either not prepared to invest enough
money or were not prepared to commit to the sort of minimum sales
figures that I considered possible.
Interviewer: So where did you go from there?
Mandy Haberman: I exhibited at trade shows. We showed prototypes which were convincing
as real product samples. We demonstrated our moment drinking from
them, and the next moment shaking them over people’s clothes! Not a
drop came out The shows were a huge success. We took about 10,000
Euros of advance orders.
Interviewer: What happened next?
Mandy Haberman: With the 10,000 Euros from the advance orders, I set up my own
company – The Haberman Company Ltd. - to make the cups, and we
rocketed into business. Later on, I licensed my product to V & A
Marketing Ltd. in the UK, and a company called The First Years in the
Interviewer: How did you establish your routes to market?
Mandy Haberman: We realised that we needed to get the product into the supermarkets but
this wasn’t going to be easy – we had already been in contact with all the
big claims, but they weren’t interested.
Mandy Haberman: So we filled a cup with fruit juice and put it loose inside a white box and
posted it to the buyer at Tesco, with a note to say that if it arrived
without spilling, she should give us a call. A few days later, the telephone
rang – we were in Tesco!
Bill Mascull, Jeremy Comfort, Best Practice; Business English in a global Context
to make a series of prototypes - to want to see if your idea works in practice;
to look for a financial backer – to want someone to invest in your product;
to apply for a patent – to want to protect your idea so that others cannot copy it;
to exhibit at trade shows – to want to show your product to possible buyers;
set up my own company – to want to sell your product yourself.
This is the final lesson on the topic.
Today we are talking about women scientists’ contribution. All teams present their articles to the editorial team and make a report to a class about the person of their article. At the same time all the listeners play the part of the members of the editorial team: make some notes in order to be ready for giving the evaluation of the reports, collate the articles for getting out the newsletter in its final form. Good luck!
After the presentation make a conclusion.
The process. Online activity
After the students have chosen a partner and define the roles, they start to do the task given below (choose a woman scientist, search the information).
All pairs do this task. Every pair will make a presentation at the next lesson, and at the same time they will play the role of editorial team, listening to others. All pairs have to be involved.
SELF-STUDY MATERIALS FOR UNIT III
Explain shortly the formation of the Past Simple Tense and ask to do grammar tasks, given in Students’ book for self-study.
1. Lily and Jack visit their grandparents every weekend. They visited them last weekend too.
2. I usually listen to the news on TV before I go to sleep at night, but last night I listened to the news on the radio.
3. Ann seldom finishes her homework before midnight. But yesterday she finished her homework at 10 p.m.
4. I usually invite a lot of people to my birthday party. But last year I invited only my close friends.
5. Take care! This crossroads is extremely dangerous. Accidents are often here. A serious accident happened at this crossroads only a few days ago.
6. In the evening my parents stay at home and watch TV. As usual they stayed at home and watched TV last night.
1. We needed money badly so we sold our car.
2. Ann spent a lot of money yesterday. She bought a dress which cost $70.
3. Dan ran the marathon in two hours.
4. They drank champagne to celebrate their wedding anniversary.
5. As teenagers, we understood each other very well.
6. They flew to Spain the day before yesterday.
1. I didn’t buy any new clothes last week.
2. The train didn’t arrive on time.
3. You didn’t make a bad mistake.
4. They didn’t have to leave for the airport at 5 p.m.
5. She didn’t have a headache.
1. Did you enjoy Peter’s birthday party? No, I didn’t.
2. Did Peter have a light breakfast in the morning? Yes, he did.
3. Did she know his telephone number? No, she didn’t.
4. Did Mrs. Adams have to travel tourist class? Yes, she did.
5. Did you feel tired and go to bed early? Yes, I did.
Exercise 5. Rewrite each sentence as positive, negative or a general question, according to the instructions.
Example: My dad didn't work late yesterday. (positive) – My dad worked late yesterday,
Greg went to the theatre at the weekend. (question) – Did Greg go to the theatre at the weekend?
I had to visit my parents last week. (negative) – I didn’t have to visit my parents last week.
1. Did Jim have a lot of adventures in the jungle?
2. We didn’t begin our new language course book in May.
3. Did you eat anything for breakfast this morning?
4. The sun rose at 5.15 a.m.
5. They didn’t have to work overtime in their new job.