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Writing practice

I. Ask students to match things that people write or say on holidays

Merry Christmas! Thank you very much.
Congratulations! Cheers!
Pumpkins and candles witches and bats decorations for handles and tall pointy hats It's nice to have a friend like you. I'll tell you what I'm going to do. Because you make me feel so fine, I'll take you for my valentine!
Happy New Year! Trick or Treat!
Ours love will pass all tests It's too early for the rest! You and me, we both together Will be glad for any weather! A health to you, A wealth to you, And the best that life can give to you.


II. Ask students to choose a holiday and write a greeting card to their friend.



I. Ask students to put sentences describing holidays in the correct order and describe the way you celebrate your favourite holidays.

___6___People give presents to their relatives and friends.

___1___They organise a party to celebrate their favourite holiday.

___8___All the guests go for a walk together.

___2___They write cards and invite their friends to the holiday.

___4___They prepare a festive dinner.

___3___They decorate the house for the holiday.

___5___Relatives and friends visit the party.

___7___They enjoy the party.


II. Ask students to describe their favourite holiday to a friend using the vocabulary of the section. Encourage them to use the following questions

Is it a public or private holiday?

Is it national or international holiday?

When do you celebrate it?

How do you prepare for the holiday?

How do you celebrate it?

Are there any customs and traditions connected with the holiday?

What are they?

Why is it your favourite holiday?


Ask students to study new vocabulary. Get ready for Lesson 5a Holidays in Great Britain (see Lesson 5a Instructors manual).

Lesson 5

The lesson plan

1. Introduction to the theme (2 min)

2. The task (2min)

3. Problem-based activity (80 min)

4. Evaluation. (5-7 min)

5. Homework (1 min)


As an introduction to the lesson My native town for students a teacher may say that there is a great number of cities and towns or even villages in every country. But there is only one that you will never forget. It is your native city, a place you have been born in. Say that they will have a chance to inform others and to share your emotions about it.

The task

Ask students to imagine themselves on an exchange programme in a European university. Your new group mates want to know more about your Motherland. Ask students as a written practice to write an article into a university paper about your native town. Ask students to try to answer the questions in the article. Encourage students to share their emotions about the city. Bring some photos of the city sights and to speak about.

  • the location of the city (its geographic position, rivers, lakes, mountains, etc.);
  • the population of the city;
  • the economic situation of the city (industrial or agricultural, etc.);
  • the cultural life (theatres, museums, parks, galleries etc.);

the sights of the city.

Problem-based activity


Evaluate the task using the following criteria.

This assignment is worth 5 grades. Points will be awarded as follows:

1 grade the use of the vocabulary of the lesson

1 grade the grammatical correctness of the text

1 grade informativeness (did you answer all the questions)

1 grade the composition of the text

1 grade creativity, effort and neatness of presentation, personal effort



Ask students to memorise the information and try to reproduce it at home in a letter about native land and its cities.


Lesson 5a

The lesson plan

1. Introduction to the theme (2 min)

2. The task (2min)

3. Group discussion (80 min)

4. Evaluation. (5-7 min)

5. Homework (1 min)


As an introduction to the lesson Holidays in English speaking countries for students a teacher may say that there are many countries over the world. Different countries have different customs, cultures, languages, and religions. They also have different holidays.

The task

Ask students to study the following websites to gather information about holidays in English speaking countries. Ask students to work in groups and discuss the following questions concerning holidays in different countries.

1. What are the favourite holidays in your country?

2. Do you like these holidays? Why?

3. What are the favourite holidays in English speaking countries (Great Britain, The USA, Australia, etc.)?

4. What are the common holidays that all countries celebrate? Are there any differences?

5. What are the holidays that are celebrated only in this or that country?

Group discussion


Evaluate the task using the following criteria.

This assignment is worth 5 grades. Points will be awarded as follows:

1 grade the use of the vocabulary of the lesson

1 grade the grammatical correctness of speech

1 grade informativeness (did you answer all the questions)

1 grade personal effort and activity

1 grade creativity and neatness of presentation



Ask students to learn the information of the lesson and present it in the form of the report.

Lesson 6

The lesson plan

1. Introduction to the theme (2 min)

2. The task (2min)

3. Presentations (60 min)

4. Evaluation. (5-7 min)

5. Bonus (20 min)



As an introduction to the lesson British culture for students a teacher may say that it is impossible to learn the language without knowing its culture. It will also help them to know their native culture better.

The task

Ask students to work in groups and prepare a presentation about English culture using internet resources recommended. Encourage students to speak about:

Facts and figures (country, geography, weather, population, flag, economy, religion, etc.);

Daily life (place to live, houses, transport, shops, family life, etc.);

Etiquette (social customs, greetings, eating manners, meal times, etc.);

Customs and traditions (festivals and holidays, unusual customs, costumes, national flowers, etc.)



Evaluate the task using the following criteria.

This assignment is worth 10 grades. Points will be awarded as follows:

1 grade the use of the vocabulary of the lesson

1 grade the grammatical correctness of speech

1 grade personal effort and activity

2 grades creativity and neatness of presentation

3 grades informativeness (did you answer all the questions)



English humour is an integral part of the British culture. Ask students to study the following anecdotes, but to enjoy them, they should match the beginning of the jokes with their ends.

Beginning End
Id like some crocodile shoes, please. Certainly, Madam. What size does your crocodile wear
Which is faster heat or cold? Heat, because you can catch cold.
Waiter, will the pancakes be long? No, Sir, round..
Why do birds fly south? Because its too far to walk.
Doctor, what will I do? My sons just swallowed a pen? Use the pencil till I get there
What kind of driver has never accidents? A screwdriver.

Ask students to reproduce any typical Russian anecdotes.



Ask students to study the table on the use of the Present Continuous Tense and do the exercises.

+ ?
I am   writing I am not   writing am I   writing?
you are you are not are you
he she it   is he she it   is not   is he she it
we you they   are we you they   are not   are we you they


Exercise 1. Ask students to add ing to the verbs to form The Present Continuous.

1. Im writing a report.

2. They are studying English.

3. She is traveling abroad.

4. We are listening to the teacher now.

5. Dont make noise. Sandra working on a new project.


Exercise 2. Ask students to complete the sentences about Russia using one of the verbs in the necessary form positive or negative.

get become change rise increase fall pay

1. The population of Russia is increasing at the moment.

2. The economic situation in the country is not really good but it is changing.

3. The number of people without jobs is not falling now.

4. The cost of living is rising. Every year things are dearer.

5. These days food is getting more and more expensive.

6. The government is paying more attention to the social programme now.

7. People are becoming more and more patriotic.


Exercise 3. Ask students to translate the sentences using the Present Continuous Tense and the vocabulary of the lesson.

1. They are building a new shopping center in our street.

2. Our city is becoming bigger more and more beautiful. New streets and avenues tall buildings, theatres and museums appear in our city.

3. Because of the pollution the climate on our planet is changing. For example, our winters are becoming milder and milder, and there is unbearable heat in summers.

Take an umbrella. It is raining outside.

4. OK. After such heat we need fresh air.

5. Look here. We are moving to the suburbs. It is not so noisy and dangerous there. The air is fresher, because there is not so much traffic there.


Exercise 1. Ask students to choose the correct form the Present Indefinite or the Present Continuous and explain the choice.

1. My parents live / are living in Moscow (A - permanent action).

2. We read / are reading many books in the original during English classes. Now we read / are reading Tales by Oscar Wild (A -customary action; present period of time).

3. The USA consists / is consisting of 50 states (A -permanent action).

4. Look at him. He wears / is wearing a hat and a long coat. He looks / is looking like a real gentleman (B moment of speaking. moment of speaking).

5. Many shops in Britain as well as theatres and cinemas close /are closing on Sunday (B customary action).


Exercise 2. Ask students to use the Present Indefinite or the Present Continuous of the verbs in brackets.

1. My elder sister is traveling around Scotland now. She always travels in summer.

2. Who are you waiting for? I am waiting for Ann, she must come in ten minutes.

3. London stands on the river Thames.

4. Russian people celebrate the Victory Day on the 9th of May. It is a popular national holiday in Russia.

5. My dad is not working at the moment. Today is his day off.

6. Why is it so noisy out-of-doors? Our neighbours are having a party. They always organize parties in spring in the open air, when the weather is warm.

7. Usually the Englishmen live in their own houses not flats.

8. I cant give you the book about British customs and traditions, because my brother is using it. He needs it now, he is preparing a report for the English class on Monday.

9. Silvia is in America for three months. She is learning English.

10. Ben is in London now. He is staying at the Hilton Hotel. He always stays there when he is in London.


Exercise 3. Ask student to translate from Russian into English using the necessary tense form the Present Continuous or the Present Simple.

1. He is shopping the whole week to find some presents for the holiday. On New Years Eve people usually choose presents for their relatives and friends.

2. What are you waiting for? You can start decorating the house for the holiday without our help.

3. The British like to keep pets. They can care about their cats, dogs, horses, canaries, parrots and so on for hours.

4. On the first of January thousands of people come to Times Square to see the New Year in.

5. I am looking forward to coming holidays not because I like to receive presents. I prefer to give them.


Unit III


(famous people)

prepared by

Marina Berezina

e-mail: marina_berezina_@inbox.ru

Lesson 1

The lesson plan

  1. Lead-in (10 min)
  2. Active vocabulary; prereading discussion (15 min)
  3. Reading (10 min)
  4. Reading comprehension (10 min)
  5. Listening (20 min)
  6. On/Off-line. Speaking practice. Work in groups (25 min)
  7. Homework



We tried to give more additional materials, than necessary, in order to help the teachers to make the lesson more attractive and interesting.

These are the photos of:

Alexander Graham Bell the inventor of the telephone. He was born in Edinburgh (1847 1922), then moved to the USA. It was on the 10th of March, 1876, when A. Bell invented the telephone. He worked with his friend Watson. In 1915, the first transcontinental line was opened.

T. Polyakova, E. Sinyavskaya, Moscow, 2007

Sofia Krukovsky Kovalevskaya was born in Moscow (1850 1891). An extraordinary woman, Sofia Kovalevskaya was not only a great Russian mathematician, but also a writer and advocate of women's rights in the 19th century. It was her struggle to obtain the best education available which began to open doors at universities to women. In addition, her ground-breaking work in mathematics made her male counterparts reconsider their archaic notions of women's inferiority to men in such scientific arenas.

Becky Wilson, Class of 1997 (Agnes Scott College);

Popular Dictionary Europedia, Moscow, Olma-Press, 2003).

Albert Einstein (1879 -1955) one of the most famous scientists in the world, whose Theory of Relativity brought him fame of five continents, was slow, shy and backward in his childhood. He found it extremely difficult to learn even to talk. He was born in Germany, lived in Switzerland, then moved to the USA. Mrs. Einstein said that her husband liked order in his thinking, but he didnt like it in his living. He did whatever he wanted to, whenever he wanted to, he had only two rules of conduct. The first was: dont have any rules whatever. And the second was: be independent of the opinions of others. In 1921 he became a Nobel Prize Winner for the discovery of the Photoeffects Laws.

T. Polyakova, E. Sinyavskaya, Moscow, 2007;

Popular Dictionary Europedia, Moscow, Olma-Press, 2003).

Thomas Alva Edison (1847 1931) is known as one of the greatest American inventors. He invented so much that it is difficult to say which of his achievements is the greatest. He was an experimenter and a practical man more than a theoretician. He improved Bells telephone, organized the first world electrostation in New-York in 1882, etc.).

(Popular Dictionary Europedia, Moscow, Olma-Press, 2003).

Marie Sklodovska Curie, the greatest woman scientist of her day, was born in Warsaw, in 1867. The daughter of a teacher of science and mathematics in a school in the town she wished to study at the Sorbonne in Paris. She finally left her native land in 1891 and began a course of hard study and simple life in Paris. After she obtained her Masters Degree in Physics and Mathematics, she wished to obtain a Doctors degree. Pierre Curie, her husband, joined her in the effort to find the unknown chemical element, which they called radium, because it was more strongly radioactive than any known metal. In 1903 they together with Henry Becquerel were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. In 1911 Marie received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. So Mme. Sklodovska-Curie has become the first person to receive a Nobel Prize twice.

T. Polyakova, E. Sinyavskaya, Moscow, 2007;

Popular Dictionary Europedia, Moscow, Olma-Press, 2003)

Rudolf Diesel was a German engineer. He was born in 1858 and died in 1913. In 1897 he invented a new internal combustion engine. The engine is known as a diesel and it began a transport revolution in cars, trucks, trains and ships. The main advantage of diesels is that they run on rather cheap fuel.

T. Polyakova, E. Sinyavskaya, Moscow, 2007

Then ask students to read the names of these people and match their names on the left with profession on the right.

Alexander Bell an inventor

Sofia Kovalevskaya a mathematician

Thomas Edison an inventor

Albert Einstein a scientist, a physicist

Marie Curie a physicist

Pyotr Kapitsa a physicist, a scientist

Rudolf Diesel an engineer



Ask students to guess the meaning of the following words and word combinations, giving them synonyms or close meanings of them:

Prominent, to be expelled, fortress, science, scientist, scientific, founder, nuclear, to establish, incredible, to devote to, to defend, defence, entirely, technology, common knowledge, device, valve, to transmit, to prove, to disprove, capable, to list.

prominent well-known ( , );

to be expelled to be officially forced to leave a place, organization, or school, for example, because of their bad behaviour ( , );

fortress a strong building that is used by soldiers for defending a place ();

science the study and knowledge of the physical world and its behaviour, that is based on experiments and facts and is organized into a system ();

scientist someone who is trained in science, especially someone whose job is to do scientific research ();

scientific relating to science, or based on the methods of science ();

founder someone who starts an organization or institution (, );

nuclear relating to energy that is produced by changing the structure of the central part of an atom=atomic; nuclear power/energy ();

to establish to make something to start to exist or start to happen; to start an organisation or a company (o,);

incredible 1)surprising or difficult to believe, 2) great, extreme, or extremely good ();

to devote to to spend a lot of time or effort doing something () ;

to defend to protect someone or something ();

defence protection ();

entirely completely, or in every way ();

technology advanced scientific knowledge that is used for practical purposes, especially in industry (, );

common knowledge something that everyone knows ();

device a machine or piece of equipment that does a particular job (, );

valve something that opens and closes in order to control the flow of the air or liquid ();

to transmit to send an electronic signal such as a radio or telephone signal ();

to prove to provide evidence that shows that something is true ();

to disprove to prove that something is not correct or true ();

capable of(doing)smth. able to do something ( -);

to list to mention or write things one after another ( ).

Macmillan Essential Dictionary, International Student Edition.


Prereading discussion

This is the photo of one of the most famous Russian physicists Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (1894 1984) who discovered superfluidity with contribution from John F. Allen and Don Misener in 1937, the founder of the Institute of Physical Problems in Moscow. The Institute was built according to a plan which had been drawn by Kapitsa himself with equipment purchased by the Soviet Government from the Mond Laboratory in Cambridge with the assistance of Ernest Rutherford, once it was clear that Kapitsa would not be permitted to return to England.

He was appointed Director of the Institute, named after him. Kapitsa was also one of the founders of Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.

After the war, P. Kapitsa began to work in an entirely new field of science and technology - high-power electronics.

Kapitsa won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1978 for his work in low temperature physics. He shared the prize with Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson (who won for unrelated work).

Kapitsa was born in the city of Kronstadt, and graduated from the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute in 1918. He worked in the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge with Ernest Rutherford for over 10 years, was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1929, and was the first director of the Mond Laboratory from 1930 to 1934. During this period, he originated techniques for creating ultrastrong magnetic fields by injecting high currents into specially constructed air-core electromagnets for brief periods of time. In 1934 he developed a new and original apparatus for producing significant quantities of liquid helium, based on the adiabatic principle.

In 1934 he was on a professional visit to the Soviet Union when his passport was detained and he was not permitted to leave the country.

In August 1946, Kapitsa was removed from his role as head of the institute he created and exiled to his dacha near Moscow, over his refusal to take part in the Soviet hydrogen bomb project. In a letter to Stalin, Kapitsa described the project's leader, Lavrenty Beria, as "like the conductor of an orchestra with the baton in hand but without a score". After Stalin's death he regained his position, and remained a director of the institute until 1984. At his death in 1984 he was the only member of the presidium of the Soviet Academy of Sciences who was not a member of the Communist Party.

Recommended resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyotr_Leonidovich_Kapitsa



  1. There were three professional physicists were there in Russia at the turn of the XXth century: Academician Krylov and Kapitsa who was then only twenty-seven.
  2. Young Kapitsa was keenly interested in physics.
  3. He didnt enter the University, because had been expelled from the Kronstadt classic school for poor academic progress.
  4. He completed the laboratory course in two weeks instead of the usual two years.
  5. Ernest Rutherford took personal interest in him and Kapitsa became his favourite pupil.

6. In the war years, Kapitsa devoted all his talent of a scientist and an engineer to the cause of the country's defence.

7. He proved the fact that the electrons are capable of transmitting millions of kilowatts over long distances.

Ask students to make a brief retelling about Pyotr Kapitsa, using active vocabulary





These days engineers rather than setting out to create new inventions work on refining designs that already exist. These refinements can be related to size, shape, increased power or more efficiency. And usually we are talking about a combination of these refinements.

Lets take the motor as an example. You are probably all familiar with the name Michael Faraday who invented the electric motor in the 1820s. Well, the first motor was a fairly simple device and we have been improving on its design and looking for new applications for it ever since its birth.

These days there are endless projects going on around the globe where engineers are trying to modify existing motors in order to be able to use them in new contexts and in traditional contexts but with better more efficient results.

In Faradays time engineers and scientists had a more or less free rein when it came to experimenting and research. If they had enough money to carry out their plans then there was nothing to stop them. These days engineers have to take into consideration all kinds of environmental issues. We are driven by different quests to conserve energy is one of the most important. Industry demands quality and efficiency but we must never forget the environmental issues that lie behind every single engineering advance.

So back to motors. Whats happening at the moment is very exciting. A new kind of motor has been developed which uses internal permanent magnets embedded within the rotor. These magnets improve the motors flux density and torque density. What does this mean? Well, for a start the motors use less energy considerable less than traditional motors. This is because there is less heat loss. A side effect of this is that the machines using the new motors have increased precision. Size and speed are two further aspects. The new motors are a lot smaller and speed control is more efficient. This is especially important when we use the motors in gearboxes or cranes for example.

Omron has just developed a motor with an internal magnet that is being applied to high power applications. Things like huge industrial plants and building projects. There is already talk of using the new motors to replace the ones currently used in hydraulic systems.

Yaskawa Electric is one of the worlds largest manufacturers of motors. They have developed a motor with a power rating of 55KW and a rated speed of 1500rpm. This is much greater power than we have seen up till now. So, motors are increasing in power and decreasing in size. In the world of engineering this is a notable achievement.

Optional activity:

Sentence True or false?
1. Recently great advances have been made in motor technology. True
2. Engineers are constantly looking for new ways to use existing models. True
3. Engineers have more freedom for experimentation than in Faradays times. False
4. The newest motors lose more heat than the traditional motors. False
5. The newest motors are more compact than they used to be. True
6. A new motor developed by Omron may replace motors currently used in hydraulic systems. True

LearnEnglish Professionals



Online/Offline activity

Work in groups

Divide students into two groups and ask them to do the following task:

The first group: to find the information on the Internet:

a) about the son Sergey Petrovich Kapitsa, his life, family and his contribution into Russian science, his activity on TV, etc.

The second group:

b) about the farther Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa: how and when he won the Nobel Prize, using active vocabulary.

Both groups are given the same websites, but they should find different information and then prepare short reports.

Date: 2015-01-11; view: 826

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