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Declension of Adjectives

Breaking and Diphthongization

 

    Conditions Change illustrated Examples
Early OE OE Other OG languages and OE dialects WS NE
Breaking   before l + l or l + other consonants   æ   ea Gt alls Merc all North ald eall   eald All old
h h + other consonants æ: æ e ea: ea eo OHG nâh Gt ahtau OHG fehtan neah eahta feohtan Near eight fight
r + other consonants e   æ eo   ea OHG herza OHG arm Gt hardus heorte earm heard Heart arm hard
Diphthongisation   sk   after k e   æ ie   ea OHG skild OHG scal Gt skadus scield, scyld sceal sceadu Shield shall shade
e   æ ie   ea cerasus (L) loan- words castra (L) cieres, cyrs ceaster Cherries chester (camp)
j æ: e ea: ie OHG jâr Gt giban ear iefan Year give

Comparison of Adjectives in Old English

Means of form-building Positive Comparative Superlative NE
Suffixation soft wēri Softra wērira softost wēriost soft weary
Suffixation plus vowel interchange læd lon eald (also: lædra lonra ieldra ealdra lædost lenest ieldest ealdost, ealdest) glad long old
Suppletion ōd ltel micel Bettra lǽssa māra bet(e)st lǽst mǽst good little much

 


Conjugation of Preterite-Presents in Old English

Infinitive Present Tense Indicative Singular 1st 2nd 3rd Plural Subjunctive Singular Plural Participle I Past Tense Indicative Singular 1st 2nd 3rd Plural Subjunctive Singular Plural Participle II cunnan (NE can)     cann canst cann cunnon   cunne cunnen -     cūðe cūðest cūðe cūðon   cūðe cūðen cunnen, cūð sculan (NE shall, should)     sceal(l) scealt sceal(l) sculon   scule, scyle sculen, scylen -¹     sceolde sceoldest sceolde sceoldon   sceolde sceolden -

 

¹ These verbs had no Participle I; some preterite-presents built Participle I from the

Present Tense stem, e.g. OE maan, mæ, Participle I maende (NE may).


Conjugation of Verbs in Old English

  Strong Weak
Infinitive   Present Tense Indicative Singular 1st 2nd 3rd Plural Subjunctive Singular Plural Imperative Singular Plural Participle I Past Tense Indicative Singular 1st 2nd 3rd Plural Subjunctive Singular Plural Participle II findan beran (NE find bear     finde bere fintst bir(e)st fint bir(e)þ findaþ beraþ   finde bere finden beren   find ber findaþ beraþ findende berende     fond bær funde bǽre fond bær fundon bǽron   funde bǽre funden bǽren (e)fundon (e)boren dēman lōcian deem look)     dēme lōcie dēmst lōcast dēmþ lōcaþ dēmaþ lōciaþ   dēme lōcie dēmen lōcien   dēm lōca dēmaþ lōciaþ dēmende lōciende     dēmde lōcode dēmdest lōcodest dēmde lōcode dēmdon lōcodon   dēmde lōcode dēmden lōcoden (e)dēmed (e)lōcod

Declension of Adjectives



Singular
Strong (pure a- and ō-stems) M N F Weak M N F
Nom. blind blind blind Gen. blindes blindes blindre Dat. blindum blindum blindre Acc. blindne blind blinde Instr. blinde blinde blindre blinda blinde blinde blindan blindan blindan blindan blindan blindan blindan blinde blindan blindan blindan blindan
Plural
Nom. blinde blind blinda, -e Gen. blindra blindra blindra Dat. blindum blindum blindum Acc. blinde blind blinda, -e Instr. blindum blindum blindum (NE blind) All genders blindan blindra, -ena blindum blindan blindum

 



Date: 2016-04-22; view: 664


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