The organisation is an innate feature of human being. The organisational activity permits to transform the chaos of surrounding world – into the order :
¨ of organism (biological approach),
“Multicellular organisms contain a wide range of different cells. Every cell is specialised to perform its function as best as possible... Cells that work together to perform a particular function are organised into Tissues (e.g., epithelial tissue, our skin). Tissues that work together to perform a larger function are organised into Organs (e.g., leaves, the heart, kidneys).
¨ of personality (e.g., cognitive psychology of J. Piaget)
Jean Piaget viewed intellectual growth as a process of adaptation (adjustment) to he world. This happens through
Assimilation, using an existing schema to a new situation, e.g. recognise a bird,
Accommodation – the existing schema, knowledge needs to be changed to take in new information, e.g., distinguish a ostrich,
and Equilibration – an unpleasant state of disequilibrium happens when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas (assimilation). Equilibration is the force which drives the learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge (accommodation). Once the new information is acquired the process of assimilation with the new schema will continue until the next time we need to make an adjustment to it.
¨ and of society (e.g., social synergy).
The society history represents the constant alternation of differentiation and equating, hierarchisation and integration (growth of empires and their ruin).
Organisational theory contrasts, in this sense as a theory of order, with the classic economic school which studies the chaos of individuals at free market and perfect competition.
The market is based on the principle of the free movement of each individual agent in the bargaining space. The mathematical term of chaos describes the non-linear dynamical system highly sensitive to initial conditions, topologically mixing and with dense (mutually intercepting) periodic orbits.
Organisational theory studies the multidisciplinary field, which is examined by social sciences, e.g.:
Ø economic science is interested in efficiency of economic agents, including the associative activity of a company;
The lucrative organisations are aimed to get profit by combining resources.
Ø sociological approach in concentrated on the group behaviour and strategies in collective work, common values and norms, corporative culture;
The human behaviour is conformed to the expectations of the others. We prefer to be late at work, if everyone around us is late.
Ø psychology concerns the individual affective and cognitive abilities, emotional reaction at monotonous work and at changes, e.g., innovative resistance;
e.g., the motivation theories stress the individual interests and aims in taking part in collective acts.
Ø political issues describe the alliances and labour-capital (industrial) relations.
The people in organisation’ departments create alliances to get more power in collective action.
The organisational theory assembles the concepts of the aforesaid sciences to help to cope with the real tasks and problems in the world of organisations.