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THE EXAMPLES OF SPECIFIC CLASSIFICATIONS

 

I. . Ashtons classification

 

. Ashton divides the lexicon into three parts: notional words, relational words and interstitial words.

Notional words are to give the right perception of some thing, process or property. Under notional he understands the nouns, qualitative adjectives and verbs.

Relational words neither describe nor name the things, they are just to define their relations and connections towards other things (substantivized pronouns, qualitative and pronominal adjectives).

The adverbs are divided into a separate class known as interstitial words because of their being partly notional(wisely, brightly) and partly relational (now, thus)

II. A Wests classification

. West divides the lexicon into three parts, known as declinables, indeclinables and interstitial lwords.

Under declinables he understands all the words that may change their forms. Here belong N, Adj, Pr, V.

Under indeclinables he understands all the words that cant change their forms. Here belong Prep, Conj. Interj..

The adverbs are divided into a separate class known as interstitial words because of can be both declinable and indeclinable.


III. P. Penns and D. Ameris classification

 

They divide the lexicon into four parts

1.the words that name substantives (N+Pr)

2.the words that define (Adj+Adv);

3.the words that state (V)

4.the words that connect (Prep+Conj.)

IV Popabekkers classification

 

He He divides the lexicon into four parts according to their functions in a sentence:

1. Statement words: the nouns, the verbs, the pronouns

2. Modifying words: the adjectives, the adverbs.

3. Connecting words: the prepositions, conjunctions

4. Independent words: interjections.


V. J. Grattan and P. Perri s classification

They divide the lexicon into 2 parts according to the grammatical meaning and their functions in a sentence:

1) full words, which have individual lexical meaning, even taken separately, out of any context

2) formal words, which dont have any lexical meaning

VI. O. Espersen.s classification

 

They divide the lexicon into three parts according to their functioning in such syntactical structures as a word-combination and a sentence. This division of the lexicon is based on his three ranks theory . So he distinguishes :

1. theprimary words, which may be seen as the core of a word-combination or the subject of a sentence;

2. the secondary words(graduates), which are dependant on the primary word, characterizing as its atrribute;

3. the tertiary words (sub-graduates), which are dependant on the graduates. In most cases sub-graduates are to define graduate.


  Notional parts of speech SEMANTIC CRITERION FORMAL PROPERTIES FUNCTIONS
MEANING SUBDIVISIONS SUFFIXES CATEGORIES
1. THE NOUN substance proper common animate and inanimate human and non-human countable and uncountable ess; ful; hood dom; ian]; ing ion+ allomorphs ify, ation; cion; ssion; ness;   gender feminine-masculine, common ( human) case : common-possessive number: singular-plural subject, object, substantival predicative); prepositional connections; modification by an adjective.  
THE VERB process Finite-non-finite Notional, link, auxiliary   person, number, tense, aspect, voice, mood Predicate(for finite, notional) Mixed verbal for no-finite
THE ADJECTIVE property qualitative relative ic; al; able; ible; ive; ave; less; ous; euos; ious uous   degrees of comparison attribute to a noun, adjectival predicative
THE ADVERB secondary property qualitative     quantitive     circumstantial ly -ways wise ward(s degrees of comparison   modifier of manner   modifier of intensification   modifier of time, place, rtc.
THE PRONOUN indication Personal, objective, possessive, reflective, indefinite, demonstrative,     the substantival and adjectival functions
THE NUMERAL number cardinal-ordinal fractional dismal teen, ty, th, st, nd    

APPENDIX 6




Date: 2016-03-03; view: 620


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