Explain the logical associations in the following groups of meaning for the same words. Define the type of transference which has taken place. A. Metonymy B. Metaphor
Generally speaking, of any semantic change has some associations between the old meaning and the new. There are two kinds of association involved in various semantic changes: similarity of meaning (metaphor) and contiguity of meaning (metonymy). In other words transference based on Resemblance is metaphor. Transference based on contiguity is metonymy. The process of development of a new meaning or a change of meaning is traditionally termed transference. The transfer of the meaning on the basis of comparison or resemblance is called metaphor. For example,
a) similarity of shape, e.g. head of a cabbage, bottleneck, teeth of a comb
b) similarity of position, e.g. foot of a mountain, a page, leg of a table
c) similarity of function, behaviour, e.g. branch of a science
d) similarity of colour, e.g. orange, chestnut
e) metaphors which are based on parts of a human body, e.g. an eye of a needle, mouth of a river, head of an army
f) when proper names become common nouns, e.g. vandals-destructive people, a Don Juan-a lover of many women
32. Give the differences between productive and non-productive affixes and state out the productive affixes from the list: -th, -en, -er, -less, -som, -ness, -hood, -ance 59) surakta bar
33. Analyze the classification types of shortened words (acronyms, abbreviation, ellipsis, final clipping, initial clipping, medial clipping, blending) and prove what type the following words belong to: 1) story-history, phone-telephone, chute-parachute, flu-influenza, tec-detective –initial clipping
7) fog – from smoke and fog, slanguage – from slang language, dramedy – from drama and comedy -blending
34. Give possible definition and functions of the semantic field, then, give the differences in their stylistic type of the lexemes belonging to the semantic field of “madness”. Match the lexemes with the categories: 1) literary, academic or technical in character –b 2) colloquialisms -d 3) dated or archaic –c
From the following list of words choose the neutral words. Then compare and contrast neutral and coloured or marked words, give their importance in speech.
Pick up the examples of slang from the list and analyze the sources, usage of them in everyday speech.
Paternal, solar, donkey*, domestic, teenager, chap*, computer, labial, to be on the beam*, hereby, nut*, hitch-hiker*, mental, tape-recorder, the bobby on the beat*.
Give the British for the following Americanisms and give some lexical and grammatical differences of BE and AE. Apartment -building, store- floor, baggage- luggage, street car- trolley bus, fall- autumn, elevator -lift, candy-sweet, corn-flour.
39. Choose the examples of metonymy and give characteristic features of metonymy contrasting with metaphor. Knight, villain, saxophone*, eye of a needle, boycott*, the city, china*, marshall, foot of the mountains, mother country, a glass*, the branch of a science. 31) surak pragmo-prof-dyn
40. Find out the dominant synonym from the given list and explain its characteristic features and answer if the dominant synonym be substituted for certain other members of a group of synonyms. a) scent, perfume, aroma, smell*, odour
b) to astonish, to surprise*, to amaze, to puzzle
c) to brood, to reflect, to meditate, to think*
d) to shine*, to flash, to blaze, to gleam, to sparkle
41. State out the differences between formal and informal vocabulary and compare their characteristic features. 1) Formal – a,b,e,f
2) Informal –c,d
43. State out the secondary ways of word-formation from the given list and compare them with your mother tongue. Say if they are the same or different: stress-interchange, sound-interchange, reduplication, blending, sound-imitation