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Infinitive of purpose

For + a noun or object pronoun often precedes the infinitive as its subject.

Not is used before the infinitive to form the negative

Passive infinitives are formed by using to be and the past participle of the main verb.

Exercise 1 Complete the questions. Use do you want me to...? or would you like me to...? with one of these verbs (+ any other necessary words): come, lend, repeat, show, shut, wait

1 Do you want to go alone or do you want, me to come with you?

2 Have you got enough money or do you want ________.

3 Shall I leave the window open or would you _________.

4 Do you know how to use the machine or would ______.

5 Did you hear what I said or do __________.

6 Can I go now or do _____________.


Exercise 2 Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence.

1 My father said I could use his car. My father allowed me to use his car.

2 I was surprised that it rained. I didn't expect ________.

3 Don't stop him doing what he wants. Let __________.

4 He looks older when he wears glasses. Glasses make _________.

5 I think you should know the truth. I want ___________.

6 Don't let me forget to phone my sister. Remind _________.

7 At first I didn't want to apply for the job but Sarah persuaded me.

Sarah persuaded __________.

8 My lawyer said I shouldn't say anything to the police.

My lawyer advised ___________.

9 I was told that I shouldn't believe everything he says.

I was warned ______________.

10 If you've got a car, you are able to travel round more easily.

Having a car enables __________.

Exercise 3 Forms of Infinitives. Complete the following by using either active or passive infinitive forms of the verbs in parentheses. Be sure to include negatives or subjects when indicated.


Clark: What a stressful day. You need ______to take (take) a vocation.

You certainly look tired. Of course, you don't need _____ (tell) that, I suppose.

Lois: This story had ______ (finish) by 10:00. In order _____ (I / finish) it on time, I had _____ (stay) up all night last night. It would be terrific _____ (have / not) _____ (work) for the rest day.

Clark: Wouldn’t it be great _____ (take) a month off? It would be nice _____ (do) nothing but relax.

Lois: It would be nicer _______ (the boss give) us a raise. Then, I wouldn't have _____ (work) so much. Well, it's easy ______ (dream) isn't it?


Infinitive or -ing form?

Verb + to-infinitive

We usually use to-infinitive after verbs which express plans, decisions, expectations and commitments (ideas about actions which follow).

Arrange, forget, learn, plan, ask, help, manage, promise, decide, hope, offer, refuse, expect, intend, prepare, want

E.g.: He asked to leave the class early. We are learning to use a new program. My brother promised to help me with my homework.

Other verbs which take to-infinitive are those connected with the idea of making people think something: pretend, appear and seem.

Verb + -ing form (gerund)

We use an -ing form after some common verbs:

Avoid, feel, like, mind*, risk, delay, give up, miss, spend time / money, dislike, practice, suggest, enjoy, keep, put off, understand

E.g. Please avoid arriving late for class tomorrow. My tutor suggested revising for the exam. How much time do you spend watching TV every day?

(*) We use mind in questions and negative sentences.

E.g.: Did he mind lending you his notes? I don't mind being alone when I'm busy.

Exercise 1 Put the verb in the right form: -ing or infinitive (with or without to).

1 She doesn't allow smoking in the house, (smoke)

2 I've never been to Iceland but I'd like _____ there (go)

3 I'm in a difficult position. What do you advise me _____ ? (do)

4 She said the letter was personal and wouldn't let me ______ it. (read)

5 We were kept at the police station for two hours and then we were allowed _______ (go)

6 Where would you recommend me ______ for my holidays? (go)

7 I wouldn't recommend _______ in that restaurant. The food is awful, (eat)

8 The film was very sad. It made me ______ (cry)

9 Carol's parents always encouraged her _______ hard at school, (study)


Present Perfect

When we use the present perfect there is always a connection with now. The action in the past has a result now:

E.g.: 'Where's your key?' 'I don't know. I've lost it.' (I haven't got it now)

We often use the present perfect to give new information or to announce a recent happening:

E.g.: Ow! I've cut my finger.

You can use the present perfect with just, already and yet: Just = 'a short time ago':

E.g.: 'Would you like something to eat?' 'No, thanks. I've just had lunch.'

We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected

E.g.: 'Don't forget to post the letter, will you?' 'I've already posted it.'

'What time is Mark leaving?' 'He's already gone.'

Yet = 'until now' and shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences (see also Unit 110C):

E.g.: Has it stopped raining yet?

E.g.: I've written the letter but I haven't posted it yet.


Date: 2016-03-03; view: 1736

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