Exercise 2 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Use -ing.
1 She's a very interesting person. I always enjoy talking to her.
2 I'm not feeling very well. I don't fancy ___________.
3 I'm afraid there aren't any chairs. 1 hope you don't mind _______.
4 It was a lovely day, so I suggested ______________.
5 It was very funny. I couldn't stop ________________.
6 My car isn't very reliable. It keeps _______________.
Exercise 3 Complete the following sentences with active or passive gerunds formed from the verbs in parentheses. Include negatives and subjects when indicated.
Laughter and Relaxation
Example: (laugh) is one of the healthiest ways of _________ (relax).
1. _______ (relax) is difficult if you are worried about a problem.
2. _______ (laugh) can keep you from (worry) about a problem.
3. Some humor is universal, but other humor depends on _________ (you/understand) certain types of jokes.
4. _______ (understand / not) American humor is a problem for many foreigners.
5. People everywhere enjoy _______ (listen) to jokes. In fact, some don't even mind ______ (tell) the same joke several times.
6. ________ (make) people laugh can be a full-time job. For example, comedians and circus clowns earn their living by _______ (laugh) at.
Gerunds as Objects of Prepositions
Only the gerund form of verbs may be used to replace nouns as the objects of prepositions
Thanks for the phone call. Noun
Thanks for calling. Gerund
Prepositions Followed by Gerunds
Do you have a hobby, a sport, or another activity that you enjoy? It may be photography, skiing, playing the guitar, reading science fiction, or jogging. Use the following exercise to share your knowledge and experience with your classmates.
Complete the following sentences by using gerunds after the prepositions and by adding any other necessary information. You may want to use the following verbs: do, watch, listen (to), try, study, buy, and so forth.
Example: Some people can learn ... by
Some people can learn photography by studying it.
1. Others learn best by....
2. Some people learn from ... others.
3. Here are my recommendations for....
4. You should start by.. ..
5. Before..., you should....
6. While ... , you should
7. Instead of ..., you can....
8. After..., you....
On Your Own: Give at least six original sentences describing how to do something. You may give more information on your topic from the preceding exercise, or you may choose another topic. Use as many of the following prepositions as possible: by, for, after, in, from, before, while, about
Exercise 3 Complete the following conversations by adding prepositions and gerunds.
John: I'm tired television. Let's find something else to do.
Susan: Aren't you interested _______ news?
John: No, I'm not. I'm fed up_______ only bad news.
Susan: You always complain________ only bad news. Why don't you think _____a news reporter? You're good ______ stories. Then you could write about good news!
Nancy: You look upset. What's the matter?
Sandy: Jim is afraid _____ ______ his job. He's worried ____ _____ fired.
Nancy: You both need some rest and relaxation. Why don't you think _____ _____ a short trip
this weekend? I know a place that is famous _____ very relaxing.
Fred: Aren't you looking forward _____ ____ to the movie tonight?
Margaret: I like movies, but the movie you are planning _____ ______ is very violent. I don't approve ____ _____ so much violence in movies.
Fred: Well, I'm also interested _____ ______ to the new movie at the Strand. Would you object ___ ____ that movie?
The infinitive is to + the simple form of the verb. Like the gerund, it is a verb form that can replace a noun in a sentence. The infinitive may be used as the subject, the complement, or the object of a verb. It may not be the object of a preposition. In addition, an infinitive may be used as a modifier to show purpose. In this use, it may appear at various points within a sentence.
I would like dinner. Noun
I would like to eat. Infinitive object of a verb
His favorite thing to do is to eat Infinitive complement
To eat at Maxim's is one of his goals. Infinitive subject
It is expensive to eat there..
To pay the bill, he'll have to save for a month.
E.g.: He likes to spend money. It will be difficult for John (him) to save money.
It is difficult for John not to spend money.
“Not”is used before the infinitive to form the negative
E.g.: Certain subjects need to be studied several times.
It's important for students to be told that.
There was no reason for her not to be told about that.
Passive infinitives are formed by using “to be” and the past participle of the main verb.