II. Scan the text and decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. Australia’s Aboriginal people were thought to have arrived here by boat from South East Africa during the last Ice Age, at least 50,000 years ago.
2. Despite the diversity of their homelands - from outback deserts and tropical rainforests to snow-capped mountains – all Aboriginal people share a belief in the timeless, magical realm of the Future.
3. Asian and Oceanic mariners and traders were in contact with Indigenous Australians for many centuries before the European expansion into the Western Hemisphere.
4. It was not until 1770 that another Englishman, Captain James Cook, aboard the Endeavour, extended a scientific voyage to the South Pacific in order to further chart the east coast of Australia and claim it for the British Crown.
5. The major continuing problems of the colonies arose from efforts to carry out French policy designed for a penitentiary when other interests—fishing, sealing, farming, and trade—were developing.
6. In the early nineteenth century, enterprising colonists successfully introduced merino sheep as a source of the fine cotton increasingly demanded by the expanding British textile industry.
7. The term squatter did not carry any invidious meaning. In fact, squatters became the landed gentry of Australia—the so-called squattrocracy—and their wealth made them the most powerful economic segment of the population.
8. The Australian coloniesbecame self-governing while undergoing great changes caused by the development of mines in 1851.
9. Agriculture, transportation, and industry developed from the 1850s to meet the demands of the increasing population. South Australia, largely through its own capital resources, increased wheat output sharply, started the manufacture of agricultural machinery, and pioneered river transport to ship bananas to Victoria.
10. The 1870s and 1880swere decades of great economic development in the Australian colonies. Farming expanded as railroads penetrated the coastal ranges of the southeast and more land became accessible.
11. The Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901 through the federation of six states under a single king. The non-Indigenous population at the time of Federation was 3.8 million. Half of these lived in cities, three-quarters were born in Australia, and the majority were of English, Scottish or Irish descent.
12. The period between the two world wars was marked by stability. Social and economic divisions widened during the Depression years when many Australian financial institutions failed.
13. The 1960s was a period of change for Australia. The ethnic diversity produced by post-war immigration, the decline of the United Kingdom and the Korean War (to which Australia sent troops) all contributed to an atmosphere of political, economic and social change.
14. The Hawke-Keating Labor governments were in office from 1983 till 1996. They introduced a number of economic reforms, such as deregulating the government system and floating the Australian dollar.
15. Today Australia is one of the most cosmopolitan and dynamic societies in the world. Over 200 languages are spoken, with English the common language.
III. Read the text about racism in Australia. Choose the phrase from A to K to fill in the gaps. There is one phrase that you won’t need to use:
For around 50,000 years, 1 _____ of British settlers in 1788, Australia was occupied exclusively by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Paleo-archeological evidence supplemented by recent DNA testing shows that 2 _____ of aboriginal people arrived from 50,000 until approximately 2,000 BC. Post-1788, the British Empire applied 3 _____ of Terra Nullius to the Australian continent and imposed political and economic control of it in the lead up to the 1901 foundation of the independent Commonwealth of Australia. Despite 4 _____ contained within British law, Government policy and public opinion in colonial times and 5 _____ Federation often treated Aboriginal people as inferior.
Initially, indigenous Australians were in most states 6 _____ of full citizenship of the new nation on grounds of their race and restrictive immigration laws were introduced to preference "white" European immigrants to Australia. 7 _____against indigenous people and multiethnic immigration were dismantled in the early decades of the Post War period. A 1967 Referendum regarding Aboriginal rights was carried with over 90% approval by the electorate. 8 _____have re-established Aboriginal Land Rights under Australian law and in the early 21st century, indigenous Australians account for around 2.5% of the population, owning outright around 20% of all land. Intense focus 9 _____ like the removal of mixed ethnicity Aboriginal children from their Aboriginal parent resulted in a bipartisan Parliamentary apology to Aborigines carried in 2008. Aboriginal 10 _____remain lower than other ethnic groups within Australia and again are the subject of political debate.