Topic 9. The tourist industry and related sectors of the economy.
The purpose of the lectures: Review of the specifics of tourism products as a commodity on the market of tourist services.
Keywords: tourism product, the economy, tourism management
1. The tourism industry and tourism market.
2. Tourist facilities
3. Tourist services and a tourist product. Their interaction
The tourism industry and tourism market. Any economic activity is characterized by a certain time, a place where it is carried out, the technical side, ie means the use of production factors, finally, the number and types of goods and services, their implementation. We produce the goods and services provided must meet the needs of a person, in our case - the needs of tourism.
A complex system of tourist services should be seen as incoming, along with other peer systems, supersystem economy. The system of "national economy" creates needs and effective demand for tourism goods and services, manages special purpose tourism industry, financial, logistical, labor, regulatory obespecheniem its activities, organizes peer communication with other systems.
Above us we were reviewed relations between the concepts: the recreational sector and the tourism industry. Now it's time to turn to a more detailed definition of the latter concepts in order to better understand the essence of the organization of tourist services. Encyclopedia tourist gives this concept the following definition: "The tourism industry - a set of enterprises, institutions and organizations of material and immaterial spheres of production, ensuring the production, distribution, exchange and consumption of goods and services to tourists, development and operation of tourist and recreational resources and the creation of the material technical base of tourism.
Conventionally distinguish 3 groups of enterprises, institutions and organizations of the tourism industry:
1) Establishments engaged in a complex of tourist-excursion services on the routes and the resort (camp sites, hotels, motels, campgrounds, etc .; network of travel agencies, travel agencies (abroad - tour operators, travel agencies), realizing tours and individual services community policing and recreation, specialized transport, carrying out tourist and sightseeing transportation, enterprises and institutions in places of recreation and tourism center, providing tourists health and other services, as well as souvenirs and other goods and services of tourism demand (balneolechebnitsy, specialty shops, etc. .P.).
2) Enterprises, institutions and organizations that provide places for recreation and tourism for both tourists and locals a variety of services - domestic, cultural sightseeing, shopping and others. (Passenger transport, hotels, clinics, hospitals, shops, cinemas, clubs and etc.).
3) Industrial enterprises, institutions and organizations to ensure the creation and maintenance of the material and technical base of tourism and supplying for her tools, raw materials, inventory, equipment and other goods for personal use, as well as institutions that train skilled personnel for the tourism industry. "
In the manual, "Tourism Management", issued by the Russian International Academy of Tourism, the definition of the tourism industry is: "The tourism industry - a major independent business complex, consisting of groups of industries and enterprises, whose function is to meet the diverse and ever-increasing demand for a variety of activities and entertainment in their spare time ...
The tourism industry is enterprises producing goods and services whose production can not exist without tourism
- Hotel enterprises;
- Transport undertakings;
- Sightseeing, tourist bureaus and agencies;
- Enterprises producing souvenirs;
- Educational institutions of a tourist profile;
- Information and advertising services;
- Research and design organizations of a tourist profile;
- Enterprises producing tourist products. "
The tourism industry is characterized by three specific characteristics: first, it is the resource orientation in placing tourism enterprises; Secondly, seasonality in the production of tourist services and, thirdly, that high requirements to the level of infrastructure development in general and social and information, in particular.
As the tourism sector of the economy has a number of specific characteristics that distinguish it from other sectors of the economy.
The main specific feature of the tourism industry is to combine the time production and sales. This is determined by the fact that tourist services (tour-product) is produced and consumed in the same place at the same time, transport is zero, and it is consumed immediately. That is the second specific feature of the tourism may be noted that its products can not be produced as a reserve, to be stored and sold later. In such circumstances, it is advisable in tourism capacity utilization with adjustable bandwidth (eg, variable fund placement at a camp site).
Another specific feature of tourist services is the implementation of the transportation of the consumer to the production facility to produce services. This is due, in turn, on the other specifics of tourism lies in the fact that its products are exported "by self." That is a tourist exports consumed tourist product "in itself", and already in a transformed form of the purchased health, good mood, new knowledge, experiences, information, a sense of social satisfaction, etc.
It should also be said about this. N.N.Baransky defining the geographical division of labor, as a territorial form of social division of labor, wrote: "... a necessary condition for the geographical division of labor is that different countries (or regions) to work with each other, the result of work carried from one location to another that was thus a gap between the point of manufacture and the point of consumption. " Regional gap in tourism manifested in two aspects: 1) discrepancy between the place of residence (region forming the recreational needs) and recreation area (travel); 2) division of labor to ensure that the various forms of tourism and recreation activities between the different regions.
Feature of technology in tourism services is the fact that certain geographically disparate basic services and goods are not consumed independently. They are combined in distinctive types of tourist aggregated resource consumption. It should be noted that the consumer himself is involved in the management of the association, spending his time and material resources.
All these specific characteristics of the tourism industry requires great flexibility of its management, in particular increasing the role of regulation.
How is the tourism industry in our country is a complex, multidisciplinary and integrated economy, whose activities are intended to help address the challenges of economic, social, political, industrial and commercial nature. Tourist service refers to the service sector, which brings together all the activities related to the distribution, exchange and consumption of material goods and services.
In order to reveal the nature and content of tourist services, it is necessary to find out the nature of the process of service in tourism. In a broad sense, the tourist service means a series of activities, providing tourists a variety of facilities for the purchase and consumption of goods and services during travel and stay away from their homes. In practice, the tourist services is difficult, complex, long and varied in time and place process of production, supply and sale of various goods and services. He is not just a set of complex operations, and multifaceted process, which creates a new product is characterized by its specific use-value and meet the special, a kind of needs. The complex nature and complexity of the process pre-determined by the following circumstances:
- Firstly, the production of most of the services are directly linked with the consumption, however it has a substantially immaterial nature, and the services are provided directly to tour;
- Secondly, tourists are offered an extremely large range of goods and services, which have a different production technology and service. The variety of goods and services reflects the complex nature of the needs of tourists - travel, food, accommodation, medical treatment, business contacts, entertainment, etc .;
- Thirdly, a tourist service is carried out in the operation of various elements of the material and technical base - hotels, restaurants, transport, sports facilities, health facilities, etc .;
- Fourth, the services and products offered to tourists, are made in a variety of activities. One of them carried out by specialized tourist organizations and enterprises, and the other - independent entities sectors of the economy: transport, agriculture, industry, communications,
health, etc .;
- Fifth, services are provided by staff with different training and education.
The process of tourist services is long time since the special nature of consumption implies a certain consistency in the use of services. During the trip, tourists consume services of transport, hotels, sports and entertainment facilities, etc., for consumption that they need time.
In the tourism services offered, as a rule, separated geographically. Some of them (information, mediation, etc.), tourists get in their homes, others - during travel (transport, information, etc.), and others - in the tourist place (food, lodging, entertainment, treatment, business meetings, etc.). In addition, services are provided by different tourist establishments - hotels, campsites, restaurants, gyms, swimming pools, museums, theaters, etc., geographically dispersed.
In tourism is usually an act of sale does not correspond to the time and place of the paid services, which means that the sale of some of them committed some tourist enterprises, and the production and provision of - others. Schematically speaking, the process in question is triune, including service in the sale of a range of services, travel and stay in tourist areas. When the lack of organized tourist tour of one of the above mentioned components violates the unity of the process, and then you can not talk about tourism as a complex service. Without the sales it is impossible to travel without travel is impossible to stay in the points of interest to tourists. Thus, tourist services covers both activities in the manufacture, and sale of goods and services.
Direct service - a kind of process of complex relationships between service personnel and tourists, which is carried out at the same time the creation, supply and consumption of most of the goods and services.
Providing services can be schematically divided into the following actions aimed at tourists who are in to: 1) call attention to the services or goods; 2) to excite interest in the tourist product; 3) cause the desire to consume a proposed service or product; 4) Make sure to decide on the acquisition of the good tourist - service or product. It should be borne in mind that different groups of tourists react differently to the services offered and thus, in practice, these steps are not always followed in the order listed. We conclude that the staff should be familiar with what a group of tourists is a particular buyer, what approach to use against him when offering goods or services. Success depends largely on the personal qualities of staff - his training, culture, responsiveness, efficiency, friendliness, sociability, etc.
The tourism industry is a producer of a tourist product, which is satisfied by the tourist demand of the population, which, in turn, is influenced by the recreational needs of the people.
Tour - is the primary (mandatory) unit of the tourist product realized by the client as a whole and is a product of the labor of the tour operator for a specific route and specific terms. A tour operator - is a tourist enterprise (organization), which develops (development) of the tourist product and package tours; ensure their functioning, organizes advertising and promotion of tourist product on the market; determines the prices of these tours, sells travel agents for the implementation of their licenses.
By purchasing a tour package that includes four compulsory core element of tourists not only has a significant discount from the tour operator, as the acquired serial tourist product of the tourist firm, but always ask for a tour operator to expand it to include other services, or may do so on their own, on-site recreation .
Tour operator performs a leading role in tourism, since he packages the different services (transport, accommodation, meals, transportation, entertainment, etc.) into a single tourism product, which is sold to consumers through a network of agents.
Travel Agent - this is the implementer of the tourist product of the tour operator working directly in the tourist market. Receive for their work commission (7-15% of the cost of the tour). In contrast to the tour operator, travel agent is not responsible for the quality of the tour.
Product tour operators (tour package) - a set of services provided on a journey to a group or individual plan, which is offered in a broad sell as a serial product.
The tourist product is different from the tourist package that only the last part of the tourist product, to be exact - a mandatory part of the tour (Fig. 19). Standardization to the tourism product is determined by the fact that the tour purchased in one place is consumed in another. Under these conditions, only a complete harmonization of the positions of the tour operator, travel agent and tourist able to provide mutual fulfillment of commitments. This agreement actually carried out on a contract basis in the form of a tourist voucher or vouchers to be drawn up and the tour operator is a document in which all of the required guarantees for the company and the customer service. Both documents contain complete information about the tour:
- The country (tourist center), which receives tourists;
- Means of transport;
- Terms of tourist accommodation;
- The conditions of supply;
- The date of the start and end of the tour;
- The program of stay for days;
- Passport and visa formalities;
- medical insurance;
- The minimum allowable number of participants of the tour;
- Maximum possible time canceled the tour;
- Overall price of the tour;
- Compensation for failure to comply with the terms of the program and the conditions of stay of tourists;
- The name and address of the tour operator and tourist agent.
More tourist and excursion services - services not covered by the voucher or vouchers, brought to consumers in the mode of his free choice. These services are not included in the basic cost of the permit. These include reservation of seats, currency exchange, public services, rent, telephone, public transport, post office, storage items, entertainment, etc. Additional services becomes a tourist for a fee.
Products include a specific material of the tourist product, which includes hiking maps and city maps, postcards, brochures, souvenirs, camping equipment, etc., As well as the non-specific part of the tourism product, including a large number of goods that are scarce or more expensive in the place of permanent stay tourists.
The tourist product is estimated as the total volume of goods and services produced in the travel and tourism industry can be assessed in two ways:
- The sum of all production costs;
- The sum of all tourist spending, ie income from tourism.
In either case it is the value of gross tourism product - the total output of goods and services produced (consumed) in the tourism industry.
Goods and services of the tourist destination can be grouped into three groups: transportation services; goods and services connected with the stay of tourists in tourist areas (recreational resources, accommodation, food, certain types of consumer services, and others.); single goods and services (services of entertainment, sports, souvenirs, etc.). In turn, each group of tourist services and products divided into types. So, transport services are classified by mode of transport, terms of movement, comfort, etc.
Tourist travel cause the emergence of particular forms of consumption and transform itself into a tourist specific consumer. Visitor consumption is determined by the ability to pay the tourist, and the intensity of spending - the nature of tourism services and consumer habits, seasonal tourism demand and consumption of certain goods and tourism services. The composition of tourists by nationality, gender and age also affect the volume and structure of tourist spending. The largest items of expenditure of tourists are spending on travel and purchases, accounting for 60% or more of total costs, including the purchase - about - 25%.
Visitor consumption includes obtaining tourist services both for money and for free. A specific feature of tourist travel is manifested in the fact that the purpose for which it is committed, in most cases does not require a direct cash cost (use of the sea, beautiful landscapes, parks, architectural complexes and ensembles, monuments, etc.). But along with this, use-value tourism act as goods or paid services. Thus, the needs of the tourist involves getting them paid the amount of goods and services, on the one hand, and on the other - the consumption of free goods, which do not take the commodity form.
The tourist demand and tourist offer, acting as elements of the economic structure of tourism, constitute the "tourist market" - the sphere of realization of tourist services and products. It is due to the consumption of goods in the form of tourism services, tourism, and carries out its main economic function and complex. Sale of tourist services - an important article, both in domestic and in foreign trade. Tourist services, acting as a commodity, is traded on the market. In the territorial aspect of the tourist market can be divided into: the local market of tourist services at any point; District (regional) market of tourist services in a particular territorial unit of the country; the national market of tourist services on the territory of a particular country; the world market of tourist services (the global tourist market).
The tourist market has a number of specific features. If the price of goods on the world market export costs are included, the price of the tourist services - tourist expenditures on transport. It is in this important difference from the traditional tourist market commodity and other markets. Transportation expenses of tourists, along with payment for other tourist services, determine the cost of travel and are included in the total price of the tourist services.
On the tourist market is significantly affected by the mobility of tourists, depending on the political, socio-economic, natural, geographical and other factors. He was also influenced by the tourist and recreational resources, the volume of services provided, quality of service, holding various cultural events, the location of objects of tourist infrastructure, transportation, season, weather, fashion, etc.
Situation in the world tourist market determines the demand for tourism services, which is characterized by great instability in time and space. Creation of tourist services is limited to certain tourist area. But despite this, their implementation is largely due not to the local market, and serves as an integral part of national and global tourist market; hence the pricing is determined by the situation on these markets.
Tourist farm. Meeting the needs of tourists and tourist use of the benefits of economic development require a certain areas of tourism. The tourist sector is a certain set of different sectors, the creation and development of which is stimulated by the arrival and stay of tourists. This farm consists of mutually complementary industries, which can meet the demand of tourists only in the complex.
The tourist industry, as one of the key elements of the tourist offer, has a decisive influence on the territorial system, as well as the intensity of tourist traffic. The increasing demand every year, increasing differentiation of leisure as well as changes in the social structure of tourists leads to the fact that the tourist sector subject to constant changes both structurally and geographically. A special role belongs to the base lodging, transportation and supply base, without which the development of mass tourism is not possible, even in the case of high tourist attraction areas. It is important to increase the tourist appeal and has accompanying base.
Localization of objects and devices related to the servicing of tourists, their functional and spatial structure is largely dependent on the type and nature of the tourist advantages of tourist arrivals.
The suitability of the territory for the development of tourist traffic, along with the natural and cultural advantages, as judged by the level of development of the tourist economy. With this question linked the concept of "tourist capacities", understood as the capacity of the database overnight, food and related, determine the maximum number of participants of the tourist traffic that might use both individual devices and objects of tourist facilities. In studies of the current state of the main role is played by the inventory of individual elements of the economy that supplies the basic material for the assessment of equipment devices in the territory of the tourist infrastructure.
The tourist sector can be divided into direct and indirect. They are interdependent and can not exist without each other.
The first group includes institutions and facilities devoted exclusively to serving tourists hostels, hotels, campsites, shelters, special road and transportation centers, etc. This so-called tourist facilities, the second - institutions and facilities neturistskogo purpose, but used partially or periodically tourists. These include the general state of the road, transport and communications, a chain of restaurants, stores, utilities, household and cultural institutions. The entire complex of functional characteristics can be divided into four bases: accommodation (accommodation), food, and related communications.
From a theoretical point of view of structure and composition of the direct and indirect tourism economy depends on the specific conditions of the area. However, for practical purposes, and especially for business executives engaged in the construction and modernization of the objects need this simple classification, to distinguish one type of tourist facilities on the other.
In a bid to provide services for tourists accommodation it is one of the first places. Base for overnight tourists include hotels, guest houses, hostels, motels, apartments and rooms rented from the local population, campsites, cabins, trailers and tents, and others. The oldest and most common type of accommodation base in tourism are hotels. In order to work better and to reduce their own costs, the recent trend is creating huge hotel complexes, often called "chain hotels." Such systems allow hotels unified policy management and organization of work, equipment facilities, services, personnel training, upgrading equipment, etc.
Tourist Hotel - hotel-style building with high comfort rooms of cultural and community services, catering restaurant shape rooms for tourist and excursion work, usually located on the tourist route in the suburbs or tourist center.
Tourist center - a hotel type building (seasonal and year-round operation) with premises of cultural and community services, catering, accommodation for the tourist operation. The tourist base is located on the route of the tourist route and organizes tourist trips and excursions for guests, prepares them theoretically and practically to camp life.
Pension - health center hotel type, intended for leisure travelers and is located in the resort areas and peri-urban recreation areas.
Shelter - a place for leisure travelers on the route with adequate conditions of service, which has simplified the premises to accommodate tourists for a short period and the conditions for cooking. The shelter operates as a branch of the tourist base.
Motel - a tourist hotel for the sleeper, which has parking area, as well as conditions for their maintenance and repair.
Camping - a set of seasonal maintenance avtomototuristov having simplified premises to house and area for parking, hearths for cooking or catering.
With the development of international and domestic tourism is growing demand for cheap means of accommodation - campsites. Campsites require very low cost and can be built very quickly. So they seem to be most promising to accommodate the rapidly expanding flow of tourists. Their development is typical of the '60s and' 80s. They even say that their growth is determined by the level of development of mass tourism. Finally, in many countries, a significant percentage of beds in the private apartments, the owners of which offer them to tourists.
In addition to hotels, motels and resorts that make up the main means of accommodation to the tourism industry is a large number of additional types of accommodation. This youth hostels, recreational centers for family holidays, mountain huts, and resorts, as well as rental apartments, country houses, farms, etc.. Every year the number of seats in other kinds of accommodation facilities increases, and more rapidly, than the number of beds in hotels and motels. There are new kinds of additional accommodation facilities. It is often difficult to distinguish between basic and additional types of accommodation, because even in rented private homes in some countries owners offer travelers the same services as in hotels. In this connection, the international practice, on the recommendation of the WTO (World Tourism Organization), to additional types of accommodation includes all types of accommodation, except for hotels, motels and resorts.
A significant role in tourism also play a "second home", the number of which, since the mid-50s, is systematically increasing.
Not common, but very promising form of tourist accommodation houses are a fisherman and a hunter (the so-called "izbushechny" tourism).
It occupies a special place unorganized tourism. Too many "savages" with great pleasure that would use the services of transshipment base, built in the end of the main points of Railways (airlines, railways, motor-ship flight, etc.), where you could buy the necessary food, rent equipment, get advice and tourist maps of the journeys. There would be many who want to hire in the most interesting places for a small fee huts, boats with motors and other equipment.
Organization of elementary forms of amateur tourist service seems a priority, as it allows to some extent solve the problem of relaxation the largest group of tourists. This will require the minimum cost that will pay off in the short term.
Any journey begins with tourist accommodation. From this it depends on many things. After all, a tourist center, hotel, camping, become tourist destination, and this place should be nicely planned, solidly built, have the necessary facilities and be like all the tourists.
The most frequently used indicator of the definition of "placing potential" tourist hotel base is the value per 1000 population of the country (region). Regionally this figure varies within wide limits.
Meeting the demand in the tourist and Beverage is no less important than the provision of accommodation and recreation. Food is organized in the restaurant at the tourist hotels, restaurants and other catering establishments, which, along with the release of supply tourists and excursionists coupons and vouchers, selling his produce for cash, and the share of sales of more than 50% of retail turnover.
By catering to the tourist centers, we must distinguish between closed, open and mixed forms.
The closed form is characteristic for enterprises organized recreation. Resting is supplied always in exactly the specified time and at a certain place. In case of early departure, late arrival or no-show him the money will not be returned.
The open form of power is designed for amateur tourists, locals and vacationers organized that feed for cash and can dine in any number and variety specified in the menu. In this form of catering can pay special stamps issued for this purpose by local travel agencies.
When mixed form of catering to a special breakfast, lunch and dinner permanent seats reserved for organized vacationers, and the rest of the time, all visitors can be ordered à la carte.
a mixed form should also include the power of organized tourists in the event that they may eat their coupons in one or more of the catering.
Despite the diversity of the needs of tourists they met two kinds of power - compulsory (provides a sufficient number of calories needed for outdoor activities) and entertaining
Entertaining meals as opposed to mandatory, not only gives consumers some amount of calories, but also is an essential element of service.
Nowadays, these countries used five different systems of catering:
1) the traditional system of catering;
2) semi-traditional system of public power;
3) System catering ready-to-eat foods;
4) centralized preparation of ready to consume products for companies selling these products (a system of factory-kitchen);
5) System catering fully ready to consume products (Quick Service System).
Traditional system catering characterized in that the food is prepared directly at the plant in which it is consumed almost immediately after its preparation, whereas in the other four systems the time between preparation and consumption of the product concerned can be considerably longer (from one week to one month ).
In terms of the hotel industry is very important economic issue is the degree of use of hotel facilities.
The utilization of the tourist enterprises depends on the region where they are located. The effectiveness of investment in tourism enterprises is greatly reduced due to the seasonality of their work. Hence the desire to extend the possibilities for "working period" to overcome the effect of seasonality factor. Note the rapid rise in recent years, the number of travelers in the winter.
The primary means to improve economic results of hotels and tourist centers - a reduction in the seasonal tourist traffic. The effect is achieved by means of appropriate advertising, price policy by providing benefits for the off-season stay in the areas of mass tourism. Also stimulates trip tourists families and groups, which increases the total.
Overcome the "dead" off-season contribute to reduced rates and the prices of services (at a discount of 20-30%), and the growing desire to avoid the discomfort and turmoil during the summer mass influx of tourists and get the extras.
The extensive development of hotel chains with their own network and franchised members created a new centralized booking system, which resulted in most of the hotel range (60-70%) is under the control of a centralized system of reservation companies. The remaining number of rooms can be booked directly with the hotel. This system provides great benefits booking, protecting it from decay and increasing the yield capacity of the unfavorable seasons. However, it imposes requirements for the technical equipment of the booking system, the introduction of computer reservation placements.
Enterprises and organizations of the hospitality industry and adapted to the specific nature of the activities and computer programs to help solve the complex problems of collecting and sorting, processing of incoming data through various channels and to facilitate the management of enterprises and organizations in making operational and strategic decisions.
Moving is the most characteristic feature of tourism and transport, providing this movement is the most important sector, providing services such as tourism. Without transport there is no tourism, if you do not talk about hiking excursions and hikes, as the limited number of participants, as well as distance.
Transportation has always played an important role in the development of tourist migrations. The main importance for the tourist are: the continuation of travel time, its comfort and value. Very expressive relationship between the type of means of transport and the level of welfare of the tourist nature of tourist travel and long-term goals of departure.
Rhode use tourism as a means of transport depend on the geographical location and environmental conditions of the area and the degree of development of communication networks. Tourist traffic is divided - as transportation in general - to: land, water (river and sea) and the air. The share of individual modes of transport in the tourist traffic is usually formed differently in the international and domestic tourism, as well as in the context of the entire country or its regions.
Public transportation can be a place of direct tourist destination, its food and entertainment. Such transport, tourism has become one of the most popular forms of recreation. For this purpose, the most adapted means of water transport -suda on which, due to the high level of comfort, leisure facilities are close in terms of a luxury hotel. Passenger sea (or river) the ship as "moving house" is the most attractive for tourists more advanced age.
Rail transport can not ensure such a high level of service even with the use of specialized vehicles, but it has its advantages, because in many cases superior to water transport on the number of destinations visited, which also did not swim up the river.
In highly developed countries are also popular motor and air tourism.
In addition, transport plays an important role in the maintenance of excursions, ie visits to cities and towns, places of interest nature, cultural and historical sites, trips to pick mushrooms and fishing.
Cruise tourism has the most rapid growth since the late '50s, though he practiced from time immemorial. It is known that one of the first "guides" cruise travel was an English novelist William Makepeace Thackeray. The main form of cruise travel is a tourist route along the coast with short excursions ashore. Currently, cruise trips have acquired new forms: a long trip into the country with the use of other modes of transport. For example, at a stop in Italy, Mediterranean cruise tourists visit Rome, Florence and other famous cities.
In the international and domestic tourism the main importance of personal transportation vehicles (individual tourists) and buses (excursions). Traveling on motorcycles, mopeds and bicycles are not currently so popular.
The rapid development of road transport, especially the use of private cars, was due equally to the growth of production of passenger cars and buses, and constantly develop and improve the network of paved roads. The density of modern network of roads allows to reach by car in almost any area of the country or to other countries. The road network is accompanied by development of infrastructure related to the sleeper service (eg, parking, motels, restaurants, cafes, gas stations, service stations, etc.).
All the more important in a growing number autotravel begin to play the so-called caravanning - caravans for cars.
Transportation must be carried out by specialized tourist buses, designed for many days of stay of tourists, recreational opportunities in the route that has a good review, a special place to accompany guide and luggage.
The use of private cars to travel for tourism purposes, without which it is difficult to imagine modern tourism, called trailering. This journey, calculated for a few days or weeks. A characteristic feature of caravanning is a high maneuverability, mobility, and the ability to overcome great distances in a short time and visit a large number of tourist and other facilities. High maneuverability allows autotourists return to the place of temporary accommodation, and in the presence of caravanning, tents and other supplies - spend it anywhere.
Air transport during seasonal downturns can offer under the terms of the charter transportation organizations and enterprises with the use of a two-day journey utilities or transportation accommodations. Full load of the cabin in the organization of charter allows private foreign companies in this case is much lower tariff. There are currently two forms of lease aircraft under a charter transportation - rent an aircraft for a fixed term and rent flight on a certain day and hour. It is expected that in the future the role of air transport in tourist traffic will systematically increase, especially from the perspective of the development of production and application of new models of supersonic passenger aircraft.
Development of the material-technical base of transport poses new requirements to improve the quantity and quality of information relations in transport, improving customer service tourists in the period preceding the beginning of their journey. To meet these requirements, transport introduced a new technique for information services and reservation of seats, automated teller machines, etc. Much of the Ticket and reservation of seats in vehicles, information services, etc. focuses on travel agencies.
Technology serving the tourism industry, in addition to transport, also include the furnishing of hotels and restaurants, communication equipment.
Hotel and restaurant equipment - is one of the components of the technologies in tourism, which has a great impact on the development of the tourism industry. It includes a hotel and restaurant equipment and facilities, which in recent decades has significantly improved as a result of simplified workflows, and hotel and restaurant sectors.
Communications technology at present due to the development of computer technology: the use of computers has brought revolutionary changes in information and communication technologies, as ensured the preservation of large amounts of information, and their quick processing and transmission. Information systems have significantly improved transparency of the tourist market, and facilitate decisions concerning the choice of travel and preparation for it. All this greatly facilitated the work of individual tourism enterprises, organizations and institutions.
In addition to transport, accommodation and catering base, including tourism services and services distinguish the so-called accompanying base, some scientists call it auxiliary. As can be seen from the above Figure 17, the base of the tourism economy is the most complex structurally. You could even say that in contrast to all other databases that monostructural inherently related Polystructural base. It brings together diverse musical inherently tourist enterprises, organizations and institutions that form seven groups.
The first group includes those that their activities provide visitors the opportunity to use (consume) existing tourist and recreational resources. We are primarily talking about the establishment and maintenance in operational form of various kinds of structures and devices that help tourists to enjoy the benefits of the area for which they most often come here. This also should include service and repair, restoration of monuments.
The second group of related services associated with providing tourists the opportunity to exercise. This entails the costs of construction and operation of sports facilities.
The structure of the third group of related services include the organization of entertainment. These facilities are available only in major tourist centers. However, they need the vast majority of tourists and influence the popularity of destinations. The required number of objects of this group and their level of work defined by age and professional composition of the tourists.
The fourth group includes mainly service companies to ensure travelers the most comprehensive set of consumer services.
The fifth group includes companies for the production of tourist equipment and souvenirs. These activities can be divided into two parts: the production of products purchased directly in the tourist area, and goods that can be sold everywhere.
The sixth group brings together institutions and organizations to facilitate the departure of tourists travel trips. And above all, it is an extensive network of information services, ie advertising of tourist travel. Skillful underscore the merits, which has given the area a tourist point of view, combined with business information, including pricing information, not only to increase the inflow of tourists, but will allow the latter to choose the best form and a place to rest in view of its capabilities and needs. It should also include services related to currency exchange, and other activities inherent in any travel abroad. Lastly, this includes services of guides telling tourists about the places where they are located. A good tour guide - is the best live advertising.
The seventh group consists of tourist traffic management organization.
This division of services is of great importance in terms of revitalization of economic activity in the regions. Usually tourist regions poorly industrialized and visited by tourists mainly in a certain season. Therefore, a major challenge is the employment of the local population throughout the year. During the season, when much demand for the main services associated with transport, accommodation, catering, entertainment, sports, employment, as a rule, does not exist. But after the end of the tourist season related activities should be the regional production of souvenirs, regional tourism and sports equipment that can be stored until next season. This production is small in material costs and a relatively high share of wages in the cost of products. The same goals are the repair and restoration and other activities.
Specialized recreational enterprises directly servicing different categories of tourists. These include the company accommodation (turgostinitsy, hostels, guest houses, etc.), Tourist transport, catering (restaurants, cafes), excursions (travel and tours), the establishment of organizational-methodical and material provision of tourist trips and hikes (tips tourism and excursions, tourist clubs).
Additional companies that provide comprehensive services for tourists and the everyday needs of tourists and staff, providing services for both tourists and locals (the establishment trade, communal and personal services, communications). Their assignment to the tourism industry is determined not only departmental affiliation, and level of specialization in servicing tourists.
Related businesses include a set of institutions involved in providing recreational services necessary goods, hiking gear and sports equipment, supplying raw materials, fuel, semi-finished products and other products necessary for the production process in the tourism sector.
To increase the volume of tourist services, extending the set of basic and additional services tourist organizations based leases and agreements provide leased tourist centers attract the vehicles (trains, ships, planes, buses) for specialized tourist transport. Rented tourist economy expanded fund specialized recreational enterprises.
The complex nature of the tourist sector, the importance of social, economic, environmental and political functions require its legislative, regulatory and planning regulations in the community. These problems are solved by the system of government and industry management.
1. The tourist economy, the essence?
2. Tourism and nature protection.?
3. What is the Shopping tours?
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